Ya. Topalova 3-4
I. MAN AND BIOSPHERE
N. Stankova, R. Nedkov 5-11
Y. Gluhcheva, M. Madzharova, Ju. Ivanova 12-17
I. Ivanova 18-25
N. Melnikov, S. Mesyats, V. Skorokhodov, R. Nikitin 26-34Water management system and its related environment in Mala Omer catchment area in Erbil governorate/ Kurdistan region of IRAQ
D. Mawlood, A. Hussein 35-43
III. MICROORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT
I.Karpenko, G. Midyana, O. Karpenko, V. Novikov 44-51
IV. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
N. Dinova, M. Belouhova, I. Schneider, Ya. Topalova 52-64
S. A. Al Rawi, V. Nenov, A. Aiden 65-72
RESEARCH MODEL OF MONITORING THE RECOVERY OF AN ECOSYSTEM AFTER FIRE BASED ON SATELLITE AND GPS DATA
Nataliya Stankova, Roumen Nedkov
Abstract: The aim of this study is to monitor the post-fire recovery of an ecosystem. The test area is located in Southeastern Bulgaria, Haskovo region, where a significant fire took place in the summer of 2007. To achieve this goal, satellite images from Landsat 5 (TM), Landsat 7 (ETM+), and Landsat 8 (OLI) have been used. The model that has been developed is built on three main components – Disturbance Index (DI), Vector of Instantaneous Condition (VIC), and Direction Angle (DA). Tasseled Cap transformation (TCT) has been used and Tasseled Cap components have been generated as input data for the model. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has also been generated and the correlation coefficient between DI and NDVI has been calculated. The model has also been validated by means of aerial images with high resolution on the territory of the fire.
Keywords: remote sensing, post-fire recovery, TCT, DI, VIC
EFFECT OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO COBALT(II) COMPOUNDS ON ORGANS’ WEIGHT INDICES
Yordanka Gluhcheva, Maria Madzharova, Juliana Ivanova
Abstract. Cobalt’s (Co) wide use in the industry, in medical devices, as food perservative, in consmetics requires detailed study on its biological effects. The aim of the study was to elucidate the effect of chronic treatment with cobalt(II) compounds – cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and cobalt-EDTA (Co-EDTA) on organ weight indices in immature and mature mice. Pregnant ICR mice were treated daily with 75 mg/kg b.w. or 125 mg/kg b.w. of CoCl2 or Co-EDTA until day 90 of the newborn mice. The compounds were dissolved in regular tap water. The control mice obtained regular tap water. All experimental animals obtained food ad libitum. On day 25 pn the newborn mice were placed in individual cages and the treatment continued until day 90. Each week mice were weighed to adjust the dose. At different periods – day 18, 25, 30, 45, 60 and 90 mice were sacrificied. Spleens, liver and kidneys were excised, weighed and organ weight indices - spleen index (SI), liver index (LI) and kidney index (KI) calculated. Chronic exposure to Co(II) compounds resulted in alterations in organ indices – SI, LI, KI. CoCl2 increased SI in immature mice, while Co-EDTA affected the spleen mainly of mature mice. Co exposure led to an increase in LI in Co-EDTA-treated mice. The index decreased when CoCl2 was administered. Kidney index (KI) on the other hand was significantly increased in day 30 mice after treatment with CoCl2. The compound had little or no effect on KI of mature animals. The effect of Co-EDTA was diverse and no clear tendency was observed. The results indicate that the biological effects of Co(II) depend on the type of compound, the duration of exposure and as well as on the age of the experimental animals.
Key words: mice, in vivo model, cobalt chloride, cobalt-EDTA, organ weight indices
STUDY OF THE DYNAMICS OF FLOATING REED ISLANDS IN SREBARNA LAKE FOR THE PERIOD 1992-2014, BASED ON SATELLITE, GROUND AND GPS DATA
Abstract. This study is about the dynamics of floating reed islands in Srebarna Lake during the period 1992 - 2014. Srebarna Lake is part of Natura 2000, European ecological network. Srebarna Lake is declared as Srebarna Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, and categorized as a supported reserve.
Floating reed islands are important for the breeding of different water bird species, some of which are endangered species. They are unique for Europe as water bird habitats and they are presented only in Srebarna Lake and the Danube Delta. Focused research on the area and spatial variability of the floating reed islands have not been performed yet due to their difficult accessibility and the lack of data about their dynamics. Study of the floating reed islands dynamics (absolute and relative motion) could be done only by high-tech methods, based on remote sensing from space, using appropriate sensors to register parameters of this unique kind of unsystematic landscape units. The results from this research have been grouped in specialized geodatabase. A methodology for studying the dynamics of area, size, and location changes of the floating reed islands has been proposed. Based on this methodology the quantitative results for habitat’s ecodynamics in Srebarna Lake have been received. A coefficient of relative area (KM), showing the attitude of the habitats to the area of central water body have been introduced which is used as quantitative assessment of this habitat’s dynamics. The results of the study have been used in monitoring management plans of Srebarna Biosphere Reserve. Tracking the floating reed islands attitude is essential for investigating the dynamics of these specific habitats for endangered bird species nesting.
Key words: floating reed islands, dynamics, satellite data, monitoring.
SOLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN MINING INDUSTRY AS A PART OF ITS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
Nikolai Melnikov, Svetlana Mesyats, Vladimir Skorokhodov, Roman Nikitin
Abstract: Global character of ecological issues induced by natural resources consumption volumes determines a strategy of mining industry development consisting of reducing mining-induced impact on environment at increasing minerals production and processing efficiency. The methodology has been developed of integrated solution of tasks on solid mineral deposits exploitation based on informational technologies of objects modeling, mining-benefication industrial processes and geotechnologies. The methodology ensures increase in efficiency, industrial and ecological safety of production and processing of mineral raw material. Concerning the Kola mining industrial complex were developed innovative production and processing technologies for ore and mining-induced mineral raw material, water-preparation and waste water purification as well as rehabilitation of rock dumps.
Key words: mining industry, environmental strategy of development, modeling, innovative technologies.
WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND ITS RELATED ENVIRONMENT IN MALA OMER CATCHMENT AREA IN ERBIL GOVERNORATE/ KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ
Dana Mawlood, Awaz Hussein
Abstract: In the future, societies will face hard challenges to meet global water needs and sustain the environment. The present study was conducted to evaluate water management system and its related environments in Mala Omer. Data were collected and information abstracted using site visits and interviews .The average annual rainfall is 518.5mm, and only 18.7% recharged into the ground. Seventy-five wells were observed to abstract water for different purposes. Groundwater suffered huge depletion in water level between years 2000 and 2014. Water resources are largely gone unmanaged and inadequate capacity of management’s impacts was clearly evidenced on the longevity of water supply services.
Keywords: Mala Omer, water management and environmental aspects, hydrology, Water Balance.
INFLUENCE OF FOOD INDUSTRY WASTES AS SUBSTRATES ON THE YIELD OF BIOSURFACTANTS OF THE STRAIN PSEUDOMONAS SP. PS-17
Ilona Karpenko, Galyna Midyana, Oleksandr Karpenko, Volodymyr Novikov,
Abstract.The effectiveness of the application of economically-sound substrates (glycerol, used frying oil and phosphatide concentrate) for the synthesis of rhamnolipid surfactants by the strain Pseudomonas sp. PS-17 was established. It was also shown that the use of combined (mixed) substrates contributed to the increased concentrations of rhamnolipids if compared to the media with monosubstrates. When using a mixture of glycerol and used frying oil or phosphatide concentrate as carbon sources the concentration of rhamnolipids can be increased to 16 g/l. The possibility of application of the obtained biosurfactants in agriculture as plant growth regulators was established. The developed approaches to the synthesis of microbial surfactants will help to balance the overall cost of biosurfactant production.
Keywords: rhamnolipid biosurfactants, Pseudomonas, phosphatide concentrate, food industry waste, mixed substrates.
FUNCTIONAL CONTROL OF THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION
Nora Dinova, Mihaela Belouhova, Irina Schneider, Yana Topalova
Abstract. The technologies for biogas production, based on anaerobic digestion, become more and more widely applied in the practice in Bulgaria and worldwide. Most of them have problems such as ineffective biogas production and/or production of biogas with low quality. The monitoring of the processes solely by chemical, physical and technological parameters is not sufficient and is the reason for the ineffective performance of the technologies. There is need to be implemented strategies for functional control of the biological system carrying out the process of anaerobic digestion. In this review the most modern worldwide enzymatic, fluorescent and molecular methods and parameters for functional control of the technologies for biogas production are discussed.
Key words: anaerobic digestion, biogas production, functional control, molecular methods, fluorescent methods
INFLUENCE OF ELECTRICAL CHARGE OF REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES ON THE EXTENT OF FOULING THROUGH THE TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER FROM CERAMIC INDUSTRY
Sami A. Al Rawi, Valentin Nenov, Ahmed Aiden
Abstract: This paper presents the results obtained from industrial wastewater treatment plant in Ras Al Khaimah City (United Arab Emirates) using modified methods of reverse osmosis (RO) membrane with neutral surface charge instead of conventional membrane.
Various fouling effects influencing the surface characteristics of polyamide membranes were investigated by using primary treated water from ceramics manufacturing process and monitoring the fouling layer on the surfaces of the membranes. The obtained data were analyzed in choosing suitable membranes surpass hydrophobicity and minimum fouling deposition. Using of conventional polyamide with standard RO has faced many problems which let the system failed in treatment of industrial wastewater with high turbidity and high concentration of total suspended solids (TSS).
Low fouling membranes have been used instead of conventional RO membranes in this study. The obtained results indicate less fouling of membranes surface and flux stability. The RO membrane modification solved the problem of treatment of wastewater from ceramic industry in Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) City, UAE.
Keywords: fouling, membrane, membrane modification, reverse osmosis, wastewater treatment