EEEP 4/2011

.                 3-4

I.

, GPS

. , . , . , . , .                  5-13

- .

. , .                 14-22

. , . , .               23-29

in vivo ()

. , . , . , . , . , .                  30-33

II.

. , . , . -, . , .                       34-43

-

. , . , . , . , .                        44-49

III.

Fe2+, Zn2+ Cu2+

. , . , .                      50-57

IV.

- -500

. , . , . , .                      58-65

""

.                      66-71

. , . , . , . , . , . , .                       72-78

























, GPS
, , , ,
ECOHYDROLOGICAL MONITORING ON THE RIVER MARITSA BASIN, LIMITED FROM SOURCES TO BELOVO CITY, USING GIS ON THE BASE OF SATELLITE, GPS AND GROUND DATA
Silvia Kirilova, Roumen Nedkov, Stefan Modev, Kamelia Radeva, Ekaterina Ivanova
Abstract: Development of methods for space interpolation of values of hydrological elements is very important for hydrological researches. Those methods are based on two approaches generally: outputting of two or more factoring dependence between orohydrographical characteristics of watershed catchments and numerical valuations of hydrological characteristics which are realized on the base of contemporary geoinformation technologies. Those research and analyzes was made by modeling in GIS, using satellites, GPS and ground data. GIS give possibilities quickly and easy to collect and analyze data in space environment. It supports decision of some engineering problems of hydrology and minimize influence of subjective factor into authenticity and precision of the results.
Key words: ecohydrological characteristics, GIS, GPS, Digital Elevation Model, Maritsa river basin

up

- .
,
LANDSCAPE-GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CONSEQUENCES FROM URANIUM-ORE EXTRACTION IN TAINA RIVER BASIN
Lachezar Filchev, Ivanka Yordanova
Abstract: In present paper the methods of geochemistry of landscapes are used to reveal the changes caused by uranium-ore extraction in coniferous landscapes in the river basin of Taina River, Novi Iskar Municipality. Geochemical data for two periods 1993-1996 and 2010-2011 have been commented in order to reveal the changes that take place in the local geochemistry. High values of the coefficient of concentration (CC) for the heavy metals: Pb and Cu; and coefficient of dispersion (CD) for the heavy metals: Ni, Zn, and Mn have been found. From the estimated values of the coefficient of biological intake () was inferred, that the white pine intakes moderately to low Cu and Zn, whereas the black pine intakes moderately Zn, Mn. The values of the coefficient of technogenic concentration () for the two periods have been estimated. Conclusions regarding the overall technogeochemical status of the coniferous landscapes for both periods under investigations have been made.
Key words: geochemistry of the landscapes, uranium-ore extraction, radionuclide, heavy metals, metalloids
up



, ,
PULSED LASER DIODES LIDAR FOR ECOLOGICAL MONITORING
Stoyan Penchev, Vasilka Pencheva, Vasili Naboko
Abstract. Application of Powerful Pulsed Laser Diodes for atmospheric water vapour lidar measurement based on differential absorption principle is reported. The laser source incorporates pulsed multichipstack laser diodes of 0,9-0,86 mm wavelengths, high pulse power up to 140W and high repetition rate of 10kHz (on/off line). While its pulse energy (30mJ) is lower than the peak energy achievable by some DIAL systems incorporating Q-modulated parametric amplifiers, the developed dichroic lidar system is ultimate in compactness, reliability and low energy consumption. Such systems are favourable for unattended instruments for continuous water vapour profiling, which can provide adequate measurements of up to 5% error beyond the boundary layer of 3km altitude.
Keywords: laser diodes, differential absorption, molecular spectroscopy, atmospheric humidity

up

IN VIVO ()
, , , , ,
EFFECT OF CHRONIC IN VIVO TREATMENT OF COBALT() COMPOUNDS ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MICE
Yordanka Gluhcheva, Maria Madzharova, Rumyana Nizamova, Vasil Atanasov, Juliana Ivanova, Mariana Mitewa
Abstract. Chronic treatment with cobalt(II) compounds cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and cobalt-EDTA (Co-EDTA) increased significantly plasma iron concentration. Hemoglobin content was significantly elevated in mature (day 45, day 60 and day 90 mice exposed to CoCl2) while immature mice showed lower haemoglobin compared to age-matched controls. Co-EDTA increased haemoglobin only in day 90 mice. Lower haemoglobin content corresponded to higher plasma iron concentration. Plasma cobalt concentration was also increased. Results showed that immature day 18 mice were more sensitive to treatment compared to mature animals showing signs of anemia.
Key words: cobalt compounds, mice, hemoglobin, plasma iron and cobalt concentration

up


, , -, ,
PHYLOGENETIC CHARACTERISATION OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN TWO HOT SPRINGS FROM THE BASIN OF RUPITE
Iva Tomova, Anna Tomova, Margarita Stoilova-Disheva, Dimitrina Liutskanova, Margarita Kambourova.
Abstract. Culture-independent methods allow identifying not only the cultivable microorganisms (which are up to 5%) but all microorganisms represented in nature. Two hot springs from the basin of Rupite showed remarkable bacterial diversity. Fourteen of total 29 officially acknowledged bacterial phyla and three Candidate Divisions were represented in them.  Two archaeal types of total five ones were also identified. Along with already known sequences, we found also new ones, including new archaeal group called RAG (Rupi Archeoglobales Group). About 25-30% of the sequences were new. Among the cultivable microorganisms, a new bacterial species, Anoxybacillus rupiensis, was isolated.
Key words: hot springs, biodiversity, phylogenetic analysis, thermophilic bacteria, thermophilic archaea.

up

-
, , , ,
EFFECT OF SURFACE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS ON BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF AEROBES AND FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES
Anna Sotirova, Nadejda Fuchedjieva, Irina Lazarkevich,, Tatyana Avramova, Danka Galabova
Abstract. The effect of surface active compounds on aerobes and facultative anaerobes, members of microbial consortium isolated from reactor for methane fermentation was studied. The tested surfactants (rhamnolipid biosurfactant and Triton X-100) have a specific influence on growth, permeability and hydrophobicity of aerobic and anaerobic isolates. The high concentrations of biosurfactant inhibited the growth of all isolates, but increased the cell permeability and have not a bactericidal effect. Based on the results of this work it appears  that high concentrations of biosurfactant rhamnolipid  must be applied carefully in intensification of the complicated process of anaerobic digestion
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, surfactants, permeability, hydrophobicity

up

Fe2+, Zn2+ Cu2+
, ,
MODULATION EFFECT OF Fe2+, Zn2+ AND Cu2+ ON AMARANTH DECOLORIZATION ACTIVITY OF AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE
Irina Schneider, Mihaela Beluhova, Yana Topalova
Abstract. The modulation effect of iron (0.18 mM), zinc (0.31 mMl) and copper (0.03 mM) was investigated in a model batch process for amaranth biodegradation. An activated sludge from the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant of Samokov was used for model biological system.
The specific rate of decolorization and anaerobic azoreductase activity were used as enzymatic indicators in this study. The group of microorganisms divided on the physiological differences as aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, anaerobic azodegraders and anaerobic azoresistants were followed as well as some taxonomic groups of the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas.
The obtained results showed that the three heavy metal ions have not significant effect on decolorization efficiency which varied between 96% and 97% for all investigated variants. The modulation effect of ferro ions leaded to microbial resistance development at the end of the process. The zinc and copper modulation effects were related to induction of amaranth biotransformation potential. The obtained effect of investigated heavy metal was important for regulation of biodegradation processes in a polysubstrate system. The substrate mixture contained easy biodegradable organic matter (peptone and yeast extract) and some compounds with industrial origin as azo dye amaranth and heavy metals. The model described corresponded to the real conditions in wastewater treatment practice applied for simultaneously treated of municipal and industrial wastewaters. 
Key words: azodye, activated sludge, heavy metals, anoxic process

up


- -500
, , ,
MIR-NASA AND MARS500 PROJECTS AND THE BULGARIAN PARTICIPATION
Tania Ivanova, Ivan Dandolov, Iliana Ilieva, Yordan Naydenov
Abstarct. The "MIR-NASA" project was a NASA funded BulgarianUSRussian cooperation (1993-97). In the frame of the project a second generation of the Bulgarian SVET Space Greenhouse (SG) was launched onboard MIR OS with main objective  - to obtain full life cycle of plant development from-seed-to-seed. It was shown that microgravity does not affect normal growth, development and reproduction of plants and that plants can be used successfully in the future Biological Life Support Systems for long term manned space missions. The "Mars-500" project is 520 days imitation of flight to Mars with a crew of 6 cosmonauts in the experimental complex of the Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow. The purpose of the experiment is the study of interaction "man - environment" and to solve problems concerning medical and biological protection of the life of astronauts, as well as the operation of a large greenhouse of 3 m2. Bulgarian scientists developed Light Modules on LEDs for the greenhouse and conducted research to define their optimal parameters in the frame of the "Greenhouse-Mars" Russian-Bulgarian project.
Keywords: SVET Space Greenhouse, Mars-500 project, MIR-NASA project, LED

up

""

SVET SPACE GREENHOUSE MONITORING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
Yordan Naydenov
Abstract: The SVET Space Greenhouse (SG) is an embedded microprocessor system that is capable of fully automated and autonomous plant growth environment monitoring and control in microgravity conditions. It successfully operated onboard MIR Orbital Station in the period 1990-2000. The very first implementation of the system monitored mainly the temperature fluctuations of the cultivation environment while provided precise substrate moisture control, which is crucial to the proper plant growth and development. In the 1996/1997 onboard experiments, SVET-2 SG incorporated the NASA's gas-analyzing system GEMS, which provided acquisition of many new valuable data concerning the gravitational biology of plants. Recently, the SVET SG was equipped with its own plant shoot environment monitoring subsystem. This is part of the research effort to implement adaptive control of the cultivation process, which takes care of the plant physiological status, taxonomic specificity, and the phases of ontogenesis. It will promote effective plant growth in the future biological life-support systems of the long-termed manned space missions.
Keywords: SVET space greenhouse, monitoring system, sensors, data acquisition


up


. , . , . , . , . , . , .
WEB-BASED ECOLOGICAL MONITORING STUDY IN THE REGION OF A POLYGON ZMEYOVO, USING SATELLITE AND GROUND DATA
R. Nedkov, P. Hristov. I. Ivanova, M. Dimitrova, M. Zaharinova, G. Jelev, D. Boneva
Abstract: In this paper we describe the methodology and results of a web-based environmental monitoring study of air pollution in the region of a polygon Zmeyovo  Stara Zagora municipality. Monitoring is conducted by early 2010. The results are published daily in specialized web-page. The analyses of the results dont show atmospheric pollution in the region from polygon Zmeyovo.
Key words: web-monitoring, satellite images, ecological monitoring, air pollutions.

up