EEEP 3-4/2013

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Microbiologia Balkanica 2013        144


























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RISK EVENTS RELATED TO CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE SOUTH STREAM GAS PIPELINE
Ivan Dimitrov, Plamen Angelov
Abstract: In the paper critical events that may arise during construction and operation of the South Stream gas pipeline and their impact on the environmental situation in the region are described. These events suggest an in-depth research analysis of the risk of breakthrough of the pipeline to be conducted as well as to investigate the consequences of such emergency and to create an appropriate plan of action in an emergency.
Key words: South Stream pipeline, gas pipeline, Black sea, emergency action plan.

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DETAIL MODELING OF TRAFFIC FLOW NOISE CHARACTERISTICS OF ON MOTORWAYS
Metodi Mazhdrakov, Dobriyan Benov, Nikolai Nikolov
Abstract. When sizing transport noise barriers, mapping the noise and other tasks, are used formulas that take into account the integrated noise characteristic of traffic flow. For more detailed problem solving transport flow should be modeled taking into account certain factors - multi-lane traffic, the distribution of traffic during the day, local maxima of intensity during the week before and after vacations. This effect is significant for highways and highway streets, which requires differentiation of traffic flows and integration of noise emissions.
Keywords: transport flow noise characteristics

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NOISE PROTECTION
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SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN OF TRANSPORT NOISE BARRIERS NOISE PROTECTION
Dobriyan Benov, Metodi Mazhdrakov, Josif Toshkov
Abstract. Acoustic processes are described by relatively complex mathematical models based on differential equations for the distribution of sound waves. From these are following two problems. The first is mainly theoretical and is related to solving a certain class of differential equations with given boundary conditions. The second is the development of the computational apparatus received relatively complex mathematical relationships. Thus was created an automated system for acoustic design, which replaces the traditional computing approaches and tools. This system not only performs mathematical operations, but supports professionals with appropriate tools in acoustic design. One of the main tools is the creation of an acoustic numerical model. In the present article we will examine the mechanisms of the system with regard to design transport noise barriers.
Key words: automated system for acoustic design, acoustic calculations, acoustic numerical model

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DESIGN OF SERVICE OPENINGS IN TRANSPORT NOISE BARRIERS
Dobrian Benov, Josif Toshkov
Abstract. One of the most important requirements for the transport noise barriers is the continuity. The realization of these barriers requires that they have "openings" for different purposes - passage of people and vehicles, service activities and similar. These openings must ensure passing through them, while this should not affect their performance. In this paper are discussed such decisions.
Keywords: transport noise barriers, doors, bus-stops, counter-barrier

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BOUNDARY LAYER POLUTION WITH FINE DUST PARTICLES ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THEIR INFLUENCE
ON HUMAN HEALTH AND CLIMATE
Vasilka Pencheva, Stoyan Penchev, Irena Grigorova
Abstract: The paper analyses the increasing influence of atmospheric aerosol by fine dust particles on human health and climate changes. The increased rate of human respiratory and heart diseases with lethal end in the polluted areas is correlated to the abundance of fine dust particles in the atmospheric aerosol. Ground-based lidar stations in Sofia, Bulgaria contribute to the international investigation and mapping of pollution rates in the boundary layer.
Keyword: aerosol pollution, anthropogenic influence, lidar, human health care

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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF BANSHTITSA RIVER-PART II
Anton Sotirov, Mihaela Yerusalimova, Rositsa Vezenkova, Siana Savova, Lachezar Stanchev, Tomas Rasulski
Abstract. Aim of the study is receiving of information for the condition of the water of Banshtitsa River and making of decisions and conclusions. The present investigation includes measurements of the physical parameters of the water of Banshtitsa River in the urban part of town Kyustendil. Samples are taken and measurements are done by intervals of 250 m along the river and thus environmental monitoring of 3 km interval has been implemented. It was measured the acidity of the water (pH), temperature of the water (t,C), conductivity (, S), total dissolved sulfur (TDS, ppm), free, total and combined chlorine Cl, cyanuric acid CYS, total alkalinity CaCO3, free, total and combined copper Cu, iron Fe, Nitrate, Nitrite content and radiation of the water. The measurement method in-situ was applied, on the terrain through direct sampling grab samples, because the advantages of this method are high authenticity, correctness and accuracy of the investigations.
Key words: environmental monitoring, water quality

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EMISSION INVENTORY OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM DOMESTIC HEATING IN THE AIR OF THE URBAN AREA OF NORTH CENTRAL BULGARIA
Tsenislav Vlaknenski, Pencho Stoychev, Rozalina Chuturkova
Abstract: Inventory of emissions of particulate matter (PM10) of household heating includes three medium-sized urban areas of Central Northern Bulgaria - Svishtov, Sevlievo and Gorna Oryahovitsa, zoned as community centers. The survey was conducted in the period 2007 2010. Emissions have been assessed as area sources of pollution from domestic heating with coal and firewood. Calculations are made using balancing methods based on summary statistics for housing and fuel consumption of households in different areas.
The results show a significant increase in emissions of PM10 in two of the settlements. For Gorna Oryahovitsa annual emissions in 2007 were 56,0 t and increased to 73,1 t in 2010, i.e. a rise of 17,1 t. For Svishtov increase is even more significant: in 2007 emissions of PM10 were 158,7 t and reached 198,2 t, the increase in this area is 39,5 t. Sevlievo shows a slight drop in the level of emissions of PM10 - from 76,1 t in 2007 to 65,3 t in 2010.
Keywords: Inventory of emissions from domestic heating, Atmospheric Air Quality (AAQ), North Central Bulgaria

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ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION AND COMPARATIVE EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM ROAD TRANSPORT IN URBAN AREAS OF BULGARIA
Tsenislav Vlaknenski, Pencho Stoychev, Rozalina Chuturkova
Abstract: A local evaluation and characterization of emissions of particulate matter (PM10) from transport in three medium-sized urban areas of central northern Bulgaria - Svishtov, Sevlievo and Gorna Oryahovitsa, zoned as community centers. The study covers the period 2007 2010. Emissions from transport are characterized as line sources of pollution. The assessment of PM10 emissions from transport has been made using a database of road infrastructure, the type and intensity of the traffic of vehicles on it for the territory.
The results show an increase of emissions of PM10 in two locations. In Gorna Oryahovitsa annual emissions from transport in 2007 is 17,39 t and reach 19,21 t in 2010, registering an increase of 1,82 t. For Sevlievo increase was even greater: in 2007 emissions of PM10 are 22,3 t and reach 26,18 t, the increase is 3,88 t. For Svishtov there is a decrease of PM10 emissions from road transport, from 16,71 t in 2007 to 14,46 t in 2010.
Keywords: Inventory of emissions of particulate matter (PM10) from transport, North Central Bulgaria

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MONITORING ASSESSMENT OF AIRPOLLUTION DYNAMICS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF STARA ZAGORA, DURING THE PERIOD OF 2006 - 2012 BASED ON SATELLITE, TERRESTRIAL AND GPS DATA
R. Nedkov, M. Dimitrova, I. Ivanova, M. Zaharinova
Abstract : This work presents an analysis and assessment of the dynamics of air pollution in the region of Stara Zagora municipality of the complex Maritsa Iztok during the period 2006 2012, based on satellite, terrestrial and GPS data. Data from ground-based automatic measuring stations, located in the territory of monitoring area have been used for the analysis. Comparative analysis of the results of the dynamics, degree and extent of atmospheric pollution in the region of municipality of Stara Zagora.have been made.
Key words: air pollutions, satellite data, GPS

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SURCH FOR LIFE ON MARS AND PROJECTS FOR MANNED FLIGHTS
Tania Ivanova, Ivan Dandolov
Abstract: In recent decades, interest on the study of Mars is constantly increasing and numerous space probes and robotic devices are sent towards the Red Planet for life forms search and potential colonization in the near future. A brief overview of the results obtained by direct measurements of environmental parameters and monitoring of extremely harsh conditions on the surface of Mars is done. Recent studies of the chemical and mineral composition of rocks by the Curiosity rover reveal, that there are adequate conditions for the existence of microorganisms. Despite the inhospitable environment of the planet, projects are developed for sending manned missions to Mars and even their settlement there. The recent discovery of large reserves of frozen water beneath the surface will facilitate enormously the task. Projects for sending humans to Mars, on different programs are briefly described: to land on Mars and go outside the lander for research, then return to the Earth (Mars-500), go around Mars, without landing (Inspiration Mars) and one-way trip to Mars for settlement in pre-built biosphere complex, providing the necessary conditions for life and work (Mars One).
Keywords: Life on Mars, Humans to Mars, Mars Colonization

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TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTIONS AND SPACE MONITORING
Ivan Dimitrov
Abstract: In the paper some exemples of transboundary air pollutions in Bulgaria for the first half of 2012 are presented. The basic sources of pollution are considered and a satellite photos of registered hazardous events are presented.
Key words: transboundary air pollution, hazardous events, space monitoring

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SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT FOR CELL CULTIVATION UNDER INDUCED MICROGRAVITY CONDITIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Yordan Naydenov, Nadezhda Stefanova, Tania Ivanova
Abstract: One of the main problems arising in long-term orbital missions are the delayed wound healing and the reduced synthesis of bone matter, leading to a reduction in bone density processes associated with dysfunction of connective tissues. The need for studies of the behavior of biological objects under microgravity increases with the advancement of space technologies and plans for future long-term manned missions to Mars. Studies with cell cultures may be carried out also on Earth, in conditions close to weightlessness, by use of microgravity simulating devices (Random Positioning Machines). The first Bulgarian scientific equipment two-axis clinostat for cell cultivation under induced microgravity conditions was developed. The system was adapted to study the effects of microgravity on pre-formed in vivo-like three-dimensional cultures of fibroblasts. Test experimental research of the interaction cell-extracellular matrix was made and initial results were discussed.
Keywords: induced microgravity, two-axis clinostat, Random Positioning Machine

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INDUSTRIAL MEASURES FOR NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION
Maya Stefanova
Abastract. Nitrous oxide N2O is a greenhouse gas under the Kyoto Protocol. The production of nitric acid has a very high potential for releasing nitrous oxide emissions which makes it one of the main industrial sources of N2O. According to literary sources measures for reduction of N2O emissions at nitric acid production are grouped into 4 categories: primary measures, secondary measures, tertiary measures and sequential (end-of-pipe) techniques. A survey of the efficiency of the industrial measures for nitrous oxide emission reduction has been done referring to the necessity of implementing such measures in order to fulfil the European Unions commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and to achieve the ambitious aim of reducing global greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50 % below their 1990 levels by 2050.
Key words: nitrous oxide, reduction measures, greenhouse gases, nitric acid production

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RICE HUSK: WASTE OR A VALUABLE RAW MATERIAL. POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS TO THEIR UTILIZATION
Snejanka Uzunova, Ivan Uzunov
Abstract. The article presents a short overview of the state of art in the methods for conversion of rice husks into carbon/silicon containing value added materials. Were presented and part of the results related to the authors investigations in this area. Possibility of establishing a flexible flow sheet for complex processing of rice husks is indicated.
Keywords: rice husk; combustion; pyrolysis; hydrolysis; white ahs; silica; carbonaceous materials

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PORTABLE LIDAR SYSTEMS FOR AUTO-TUNING OF THE CONTROLLING ELECTRONICS OF WIND TURBINES
Stoyan Penchev, Vasilka Pencheva, Luben Mihov
Abstract: The paper reports an application of portable lidar systems to the control of the efficiency of contemporary wind generators. Commercial Doppler lidars are of the most perspective targets for determination of wind speed and direction. A growing number of wind-generator farms feature prospects of greater contribution to ecologic renewable sources in the sector of energy production. Simultaneously, the development of lidar technology reduces the dimensions and cost of such system, as well, increases their rigidness and reliability. A solution of the problem of real-time processing of lidar signals is presented. For the purpose, algorithms are developed for complementary digital filters on the basis of digital signal processors (DSP). Comparative simulations are conducted for determination of the efficiency of electronic noise filtering in the detector system. As a result, the noise level is reduced below the informative signal by more than 40 dB.
Keywords: wind generators, Doppler lidar, noise reduction, neural networks

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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIGESTATE FROM ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION WITH OTHER SOIL IMPROVERS
Elena Zlatareva, Plamen Ivanov, Svetla Marinova, Ivan Simeonov, Snejana Mihailova
Abstract: Soil is an ecological system that has a global impact on the biosphere. She participated in the cycle of substances and energy in nature and supports the composition of the atmosphere. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the main nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (general and mobile quantities) and toxic elements contained in the classical manure, sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and digestate from biogas production from pig manure and wasted fruits and vegetables at different rates. Quality assessment of various wastes is associated with opportunities for their use in agricultural practice to maintain and improve soil fertility and crop yields.
Keywords: biogas, digestate, pig manure, sludge from WWTP

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INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE SHALE GAS PROBLEM
Alexander Sadovski
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to make an independent review of the evidence on the use of shale gas. The author was Deputy Director General of the Environmental Research and Information Centre of the Ministry of Environment in the period 1987 -1992, and the head of the EU PHARE Environmental sector programme. As a leading expert from the Bulgarian side has participated in the development of the Environmental Strategy of Bulgaria together with a team from the World Bank and the U.S. Agency for Environmental Protection. Author of the UDF Environment Programme (1991) and he is convinced that NGOs, environmental clubs and other social forces can play an important role with respect to the active development of new environmental ethics and conduct public control over the activities of executive power. Simultaneously, it is necessary to take into account scientific evidences and new scientific and technical developments in other countries.
Key words: Energy, Shale Gas, Environmental Protection.

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INDUSTRIAL TERRAFORMING OF THE PLANET DUE TO USING OF CHEMICAL SOURCES OF ENERGY (OIL, SHALE GAS, COAL, AND WOOD)
Oleg Vitov
Abstract: Results from geometrical and physical modeling of expected changes of the Earth after entire melting of the continental glaciers due to global warming are presented here. It is obtained raising the level of the ocean with +72 m, slowing of the speed of rotation of the Earth with 2 sec per twenty-four hours, absorbing by the crust of potential energy equivalent to 16,3.109 [Kt] trotyl equivalent. That energy is 21000 times more than the energy enough to tear the Earth crust. Variants of the changes depending on different speed of melting of the glaciers are discussed. Solutions to limit the damage by use of non-chemical energy are offered. It is concluded that to improve the chances of survival of civilization and the planet is necessary to develop nuclear and thermonuclear power and achieve massive reforestation of the planet. Evidence for the occurring of such processes in the geological history of the Earth are specified.
Key words: global warming, level of the ocean, the rotation speed of the Earth

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