EEEP  3-4/2005


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21

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II.

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- (Barbus petenyi) ()

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(Apodemus flavicollis)

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Aspergillus Niger B77

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A
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ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR UTILIZATION OF DOMESTIC ORGANIC WASTES
Bayko Baykov, Botyo Zaharinov

An analysis on the problem of biodegradable organic wastes has been carried out in terms of ecosystem protection. Some modern methods for biodegradable wastes utilization have been analyzed. Composting is relatively cheap and ecological technology but it needs a long period of time and considerable areas.  The BTA-process technology gives the possibility to obtain energy gas fuel (biogas); and a product used for increasing soil fertility compost (bioslime), which contains all the necessary for plants macro and microelements. This technology is relatively expensive and needs a long period of time. The OXALOR technology is the only technology in which 98% of organics are stabilized into a long lasting product and treatment time is only 2.5 hours.

Key Words: composting, BTA-process, organic wastes

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BIOPROCESS SYSTEMS WITH FIXED FILM - THE BASE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL FRENDLY TEHNOLOGIES

Ludmil Nikolov, Vjara Mamatarkova

Abstract: The key role of the bioprocess systems with fixed film (BPSFF) in development of ecological friendly biotechnology is justified.  The effectiveness of implementation of the system approach as leading methodology in the bioprocess engineering of BPSFF is illustrated with examples in research and development activity for wastewater treatment processes, bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions and potable water denitrification. The importance of the system approach as a basis for creation and development of mathematical models is discussed. Special attention is paid to the laboratory experimental set ups as functioning physical live models of industrial BPSFF and as sources of information about mathematical model adequacy.  As results of the implementation of this approach, four principally new laboratory scale BPSFF are developed. Using mathematical models and living laboratory models reliable data for scale up of these BPSFF are obtained. They ensure the scale up of three of them and their testing under industrial conditions in open.
Keywords:
bioprocess systems, biofilm reactor, bacterial oxidation, denitrification, decarbonization

21

THE CHALLENGES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES OF THE 21 CENTURY

Yana Topalowa

Abstract:  The challenges in wastewater treatment technologies of the 21 century are discussed in this paper. The technologies are considered as high technologies as well as technologies with high ecological integrity. The important accent is put on the control, simultaneously elimination of C, N, P, incorporation of governed detoxication element in the trivial technologies or development of intensive detoxication modules or algorithms, total process of biocontrol in ecoton of the water receivers, replacement of aerobic technologies by more effective anaerobic. Other discussed challenges are: energy efficiency, transfer from large extensive to small local intensive equipment, direct mutual connection between technology, customers, water price as natural and technological resource.

Key words: wastewater treatment technologies, high ecological integrity, anaerobic and aerobic technologies


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CRITERA FOR ASSESSING CHEMICAL HETEROGENEITY OF BIOSPHERE
Kiril
Kirov, Bayko Baykov, Milena Gugova, Irina Popova, Atanas Bliznakov, Botyo Zaharinov,
Silvia Kotzeva

Abstract.  In the end of the 19th century Klarck proves that lithosphere in chemically heterogeneous. In 1934 Fersman proposes a quantitative criterion for assessing this heterogeneity the Klarck (K) unit. In the 20th century Vernadsky determines the chemical heterogeneity in the biotic components of biosphere. Research is mainly carried out about determining the concentration or dispersion of chemical elements in autotrophs, due to the fact that they compose 90% of living matter. In this research we set our aim to propose new criterions for the assessment of chemical heterogeneity of biosphere by making a complex evaluation of the characteristics of movement of matter.

Key words: chemical heterogeneity, lead, cadmium, biosphere

-
(
Barbus petenyi
) ()

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SIZE AND AGE STRUCTURE OF BALCAN BARBELL (Barbus petenyi) CATCHMENTS IN ISKAR RIVER (BULGARIA)

Desislava Rozdina, Galerida Raikova - Petrova

Abstract: After strong anthropologic pollution in the middle of the last century, ichthyofauna in Iskar River was totally destroyed. During last 10 - 15 years contamination process decreased significantly and restoration of the Rivers life have started. According to electrofishing data from the year 2003 the balcan barbell (Barbus petenyi) is subdominant species. Balcan barbell holds on a second place with 27, 27 % after chub (Leuciscus cephalus) (33, 54 %). This species is an interesting object for fishing that poses the population of the balkan barbell under a serious pressure. Our data describes the passing status of the population during the years of 2003 and 2005. The data could be used for further extensive researches into ecological status of the River, biology of the species Barbus petenyi and development of prognoses for supporting the restoration process.

Keywords: Barbus petenyi, age, size, Iskar River

(Apodemus flavicollis)
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bioindicator epigenetic characteristic of the zoomonitor Yellow-necked wood mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) in park territories in Sofia
Georgi Markov, Milena Gospodinova

Abstract: Frequency distribution of phenotype realization of discrete alternative craniological traits markers of genotype structure of wood mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) in populations inhabiting two park territories of Sofia under different human impact was determined.The obtained characteristics of epigenetic polymorphism of studied craniological morphogenetic markers reveals the possibility to be applied as information parameter in biomonitoring of urbanized environment condition through the zoomonitor A. flavicollis in the park territories of Sofia.

Key words: Yellow-necked wood mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, non-metrical characteristics, zoomonitor, urban territories.


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ENZYMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SEDIMENTS IN UPPER PART OF ISKAR RIVER
Yovana Todorova, Yana Topalova

Abstract. The enzyme activities with indicatory role for functioning of microbial communities and rate of transformation processes have been investigated in sediments of upper part of Iskar River during the low flow periods: (1) total dehydrogenase activity D; (2) index of phosphatase activity PAI; (3) nitrate-reductase activity NtRed. The enzyme activities were compared with classical microbial and chemical parameters in search of relation between verified and alternative indicators for organic pollution and degree of self-purification. The obtained results showed that the ODA and PAI could be used effectively as express indicators of pollution but the analysis of pollutant concentrations and characteristics of microbial communities responsible for substrate fate were needed for the complex assessment of rate and scale of self-purification.

Keywords: enzyme activities, sediments, self-purification, Iskar River


ANDREA . є
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APPLICATION OF ARDREA ANALYSIS FOR EARLY WARNING OF THE EFFECTS OF OIL POLLUTION IN COASTAL MARINE ECOSYSTEMS. RESEARCH INTO LABORATORY MICROCOSM MODEL
Nadezhda Todorova, Ivan Ivanov, Alexandar Hristov, Venzislav Karamfilov

Abstract. The present research is based on the advantages of ARDREA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Enzyme Analysis) - a high informative and easy applicable molecular fingerprint technique, which helps finding microorganism shift as one of the first changes in the whole ecosystem. Methods for isolating high quality and quantity of functional DNA from natural matrices have been approved and necessary set of 16S rDNA targeting primers and restriction endonucleases has been tested. Preliminary results, obtained from laboratory microcosm model show clear difference between 16S ARDREA profile patterns in pristine and oil-polluted sediment, most probably due to different microbial communities. Developed 16S rDNA-based ARDREA test-system, will be applied on natural ecosystems in order to approve it`s reliance.

Key words: ARDREA, 16S rDNA fingerprint, marine sand microcosm system, oil pollution

2005
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WATER QUALITY ALTERATIONS IN RIVER ISKAR S RESULT OF THE FLOOD EVENTS IN 2005
Dimitar Parvanov, Yana Topalova, Yovana Todorova, Lubomir Kenderov

Abstract: The following paper is a part of the complex study and intends to provide the background for explaining spatial values characteristics of chemical parameters and microbial communities in the Iskar River. The study has been conducted in the medial part of the river. Relationships among stream surface water, substream hyporheic water and sediments were examined in two seasons (respectively before and after flood events). Nutrient concentrations, Physico-chemical and microbial parameters have been measured. These investigations indicated th presence of dynamic changes of nutrients, suspended solids and microbial community as a result of the flood events.

Key words: Water quality, flood events, hyporheic  water, river sediments , chemical and microbiological indicators.


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ISOLATION OF ARSENICRESISTANT AND ARSENICTRANSFORMING SULFATEREDUCING BACTERIA

Krasimira Krumova, Veneta Groudeva

Abstract: Twenty eight bacterial strains, which are able to transform arsenic compounds, were isolated and characterized in the laboratory of Geomicrobiology at the Department of General and Industrial Microbiology, SU St. Kliment Ohridski. It was determined, that 11 of these isolates are able to efficiently oxidize the high mobile and high toxic arsenite [As (III)] to less mobile and less toxic arsenate [As (V)]. The others 17 strains are able to reduce arsenate [As (V)] to arsenite [As (III)]. n the basis of the determination via classical methods, the isolated bacteria were related to different genera within the big group of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

Key words: Sulfate-reducing bacteria, arsenite oxidizing and arsenate reducing bacteria;

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Procariotic tests for assessment of metal toxicity in soil and water

Veneta Groudeva, Ana Stoyanova, Iliana Ivanova

Abstract. Prokaryotic tests are usually used for toxicity assessment of new synthesized chemicals and environmental samples. Their broad application is because of their rapidity, simple equipment and high sensitivity. Two prokaryotic tests for growth inhibition of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida [ISO 10712] were used for toxicity assessment of soil and waters, polluted with heavy metals. Bacillus cereus test have shown better sensitivity and short timing and was considered as more suitable for fast toxicity assessment of metal polluted soil and water in industry.

Keywords: growth inhibition, toxicity, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, prokaryotic test, metal pollution


E ASPERGILLUS NIGER B77
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HEAVY METAL BIOSORPTION BY WASTE MYCEL OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER B77
Kolishka Tsekova, Dessislava Todorova, Maria Ianis, Sonia Ganeva

Abstract: This study assesses the ability of mycelial by product of glucoamylase producing Aspergillus niger B77 (both free and immobilized cells) to remove copper, cobalt and iron from single-ion solutions. Mycelia immobilized on polyurethane foam as well as in polyacrylamide gel showed almost the same values of heavy matal uptake, compared to that of the free cells. The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger B77 accumulated heavy metal ions by two processes: first was presumably cation binding to the cell surface and second, which was presented by slowly uptake of relatively small amount of the cations. The killing of the fungal biomass in boiling water decreased the uptake and in this case the process run as an adsorption of the ions on the cell surface.

Key words: sorption, heavy metals, waste biomass, Aspergillus niger, immobilized cells


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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROORGANISMS, DEGRADING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AT AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS
Nadezhda Fuchedzhieva, Tatiana Avramova, Danka Galabova

Abstract: In this study we examine the potential of a natural microbial consortium for degradation of high toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  The microbial consortium was isolated from the municipal waste treatment station Kubratovo. The three-ringed phenanthrene was used as a model aromatic hydrocarbon. The study was performed according to the next lines: estimation of the possibilities for efficient degradation of phenanthrene at aerobic and anaerobic conditions; role of an external factor- presence of oxygen- on the structure of the microbial consortium, utilizing phenanthrene and study on the degradation rates at aerobic and anaerobic conditions of selected microbial isolates.

Key words: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aerobic and anaerobic degradation, microbial consortium


BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE FOR INDUSTRIAL BIOGAZ PRODUCTION FROM CATLES WASTES
Asen Mirkov

Abstract. Environment protection from pollution with organic wastes and renewable energy sources are among the priorities of the biotechnological sciences.
Paper deals with the Bulgarian experience in the field of industrial biogaz production from catles wastes. An analysis of the main problems during their design, realization and operation (mainly of the Podgumer industrial biogas plant) is presented. The accumulated scientific and practical experience is analysed as a basis for future development of the biogas technologies in
Bulgaria
.

Key words: biogas, biomass, biodegradation, anaerobic fermentation, compost, energy


BASIC ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES ON BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION FROM STOCK-FARMING

Silviya Kotseva

Abstract :Basic ecological principles on biological production from stock-farming Basic ecological principals, applied in biological production from stock-farming: Regarding production of biological produce from agricultural animals here are three basic requirements: the production of nourishing and healthful animal source productions; humane attitude to animals; protection of the environment.

Key Words: ecological principles, biological production, extensive production, humane attitude, protection, priority, humanely














 

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