EEEP 3-4/2010

CONTENT

Editorial

Double-faced Janus of the civilization and our common future

B. Baykov, R. Berberova                 3

I. Agroecology

Structure and necrotic evaluation (Ins) of forests with edificator Fagus Sylvatica L. in Bulgaria

Hr. Tsakov, A. Cicak                      7

Optimisation of number of trees in Austrian black pine plantations through application of optimal density coefficient (d) of tree stand

Hr. Tsakov                    13

A state of soil monitoring of Bulgaria

B. Zaharinov, N. lev                       18

Estimation of the influence of the industrial gypsum over the recovery of the soil fertility of salt soils in the region of the Kermen-town

. Zlatareva, Sv. Marinova, St. Stratieva                  27

Influence of molybdenum at different fertilization of barley and rest quantities of mineral nitrogen in soil

E. Tosheva, M. Stoichkova                               33

Radioactivity in Bulgarian soils

I. Yordanova, D. Staneva, L. Misheva, Ts. Bineva, L. Dureva                             41

Effect of the meteorological conditions and fertilization on the yield of maize grown on dark-grey forest soil

E. Tosheva, P. Alexandrova                           47

Study on the modifying effect of manganese sulfate at acute gamma-irradiation of different oats varieties

T. Bineva, D. Staneva, I. Yordanova, L. Misheva, A. Zlatev                          53

Decontamination of poultry litter by pasteurization at continuous mesophilic regime of anaerobic digestion

T. Popova, O. Lutskanova                             57

II. Biofuels

Experimental study on transesterification of Mahua oil using microwave irradiation

N. Kapilan, B. Baykov                              61

Reduction of emissions of Mahua oil operated compression ignition engine

N. Kapilan, B. Baykov, R. Reddy                         66

Comparative studies on substrates for anaerobic digestion in view of regulating the nitrate content in the digestate

O. Lutskanova                                 74

Environmental assessment of Bulgarian modular plants producing biodiesel

R. Gyurov, P. Nikolov, St. Petrova                               78

III. Ecologization

Continental movements due to strong earthquakes

B. Ranguelov                         86

The Bulgarian participation in the EU SCHEMA project

G. Mardirossian, B. Ranguelov, Y. Kroumova                           92

IV. Recreation ecology and resources

Rhodope geological phenomena geological tourism development potential

B. Kostova, R. Berberova                                99

Natural resourses research in the Eastern Rhodope area for the project Heterotopy and natural resourses

R. Berberova, R. Gjurov, A. Bliznakov                          107




















STRUCTURE AND NECROTIC EVALUATION (Ins) OF FORESTS WITH EDIFICATOR FAGUS SYLVATICA L. IN BULGARIA

Hr. Tsakov, A. Cicak

Abstract: Beech forests cover almost 17% from the forest fund in Bulgaria. They are characterised with specific structure, growth and ecological plasticity. Thickness and height structure of beech forests in 7 regions of the country were determined according to height classes, under different site conditions and from 50 to 160 years of age. Necrotic damages on stems, expressed through necrotisation index  (Ins) up to 500 m a.s.l. are with highest value (1,16), up to 1000 m a.s.l. 0,98 and over 1000 m a.s.l. 0,67.

Key words: necrotic index (Ins), beech forests, height class

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OPTIMISATION OF NUMBER OF TREES IN AUSTRIAN BLACK  PINE PLANTATIONS THROUGH APPLICATION OF OPTIMAL DENSITY COEFFICIENT (d) OF TREE STAND

Hr. Tsakov

Abstract: Spatial structure of tree stand is expression of the configuration of trees, their number (density) and real capability of the site. For determination of optimal number of trees in Austrian black pine plantations, the coefficient of optimal density (d) has been used, which expresses the ratio of average height (Hav) and average space between trees (Lav). It was established that this coefficient decreases with growing of age from 0,194 to 0,155, and by changing of density it varies from 0,190 to 0,170. The calculated optimal number of trees is close to the real one from the growth model of Austrian black pine plantations. Up to the 40-th year of age differences vary from total coincidence to -3,6%. This trend remains also in pre-mature stands.

Key words: average height (Hav), average space between trees (Lav), coefficient of optimal density (od)

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A STATE OF SOIL MONITORING OF BULGARIA

B. Zaharinov, N. lev

Abstract. The Executive environmental agency of the Ministry of Environment and Water is the main organizer of the soil monitoring system as an element of the national automatic system for ecology monitoring of Bulgaria. Up to now working teams of the Institute of Soil Science Nikola Poushkarov and of the Executive environmental agency continue processing of soil data collectin from many "hot points" in the country for establishment of the disturbances of the soils (technogenic alkalization of acid soils, soil heavy metal and metaloid contamination and others) recorded in the national monitoring system.  Soil and terrain database, land degradation status and  soil vulnerability assessment are the results of the work of the soil experts in the national monitoring network, based on a common European methodology and GIS technology.

Key words: soil, soil properties, monitoring network

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Estimation of the influence of the industrial gypsum over the recovery of the soil fertility of salt soils in the region of the Kermen-town.

Zlatareva, Sv. Marinova, St. Stratieva

Abstract: By the grow of the industry they are many industrial wastes as a result by the mining industry, energetic industry, metallurgy, chemistry and others. This substantially increases the pollutions of the environment and most of the soil. In the Maritza East 2 Ltd. By the scrubbing process they are produced about 600,000 tons per year industrial gypsum, which is deposited on fertile agricultural land. Environmentally, the management of the wastes, their safe recovery is a priority in the environmental policy of the country.

We have made studies for identifying of opportunities for application of the chemical waste gypsum as chemical reclamation product for salt-soil of the meadow-land in the region of Kermen-town. We have determined positive changes in the soil quality and soil fertility as a result of the reclamation activities. They are the most important indicators, which give us prerequisite for utilization of gypsum from Maritza East 2 Ltd. as reclamation for salt soils.

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INFLUENCE OF MOLYBDENUM AT DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION OF BARLEY AND REST QUANTITIES OF MINERAL NITROGEN IN SOIL

E. Tosheva, M. Stoichkova

Abstract: The influence of molybdenum on barleys behavior at different fertilization rates, expressed through the obtained yield and its structural elements, is studied. A vegetation experiment with spring barley Elza variety is carried out. The investigation is done at different rest quantities of mineral nitrogen in two soils Leached Smolnitza, (Kostinbrod) and Leached Cinnamonic Forest soil (Patriarch Eftimovo). Three different nitrogen fertilization rates are tried out with and without molybdenum at basic background of phosphorus - potassium fertilization. We accomplished eight treatments in six replicates. From the carried out study, it is found that molybdenum is one of the limiting factors for the amount of barley yield, its structural elements and the physical properties of grain. Obtained results show higher positive effect of molybdenum fertilization for Leached Cinnamonic Forest soil (with lower natural fertility and higher acidity) when nitrogen rate and rest quantities of mineral nitrogen in soil increased. Probably, the reason for that is the regulative function of molybdenum in soil-fertilizer-plant system.

Key words: fertilizations rate, mineral nitrogen, available phosphorus, molybdenum, yield, structural elements

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RADIOACTIVITY IN BULGARIAN SOILS

I. Yordanova, D. Staneva, L. Misheva, Ts. Bineva, L. Dureva

Abstract. Information is presented about the content of natural and man-made radioactive elements in soils from different country areas covering most of its territory. For the technogineous  radionuclides the changes in cesium-137 and strontium-90 specific activities in soil is considered in more details as they are relatively long-lived and are in detectable amounts in all soil samples. Relations are established between the properties of the different soil types and the behaviour of radionuclides in them. The changes in the radiation status of soils are analysed and evaluated in relation with the status directly after the Chernobyls disaster in 1986.

Key words: cesium-137, strontium-90, radioecology, soil

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EFFECT OF THE METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND FERTILIZATION ON THE YIELD OF MAIZE GROWN ON DARK-GREY FOREST SOIL

E. Tosheva, P. Alexandrova

Abstract.The study is based on data from 12 years field fertilization experiment with maize grown in wheat rotation on dark grey forest soil in Targovishte region.  The effect of meteorological conditions on the value of maize yield at the systematic fertilization is studied. The rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as follows: 60, 120,180 240 kg N ha-1; 40, 80, 120 160 kg 25, ha-1; 0 120 kg 2 ha-1 are used for this purpose. It is established that the yield of maize strongly varies according to meteorological conditions and applied fertilization. The effectiveness of fertilization decreases or is discontinued by the water deficiency. The negative effect is increased at higher fertilizer rates and enhanced content of residues nitrogen and mobile phosphorus in condition of long soil fertilization. The carried out mathematical development gives us the possibility for exact rates determination of maize fertilization depending on annual meteorological conditions.

Key words: meteorological conditions, yield, systematic fertilization, maize

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Study on the modifying effect of manganese sulfate at acute gamma-irradiation of different oats varieties

Ts. Bineva, D. Staneva, I. Yordanova, L. Misheva, A. Zlatev

Abstract. Vegetation pot experiments were carried out under controlled conditions with three oats varieties widespread in the country. Plants were irradiated with gamma-rays of cesium-137 with a doze of 5Gy at stem extension phase, when radiosensitivity of cereal crops is the highest. On the day following the irradiation the plants were sprayed with radio-modifier - manganese sulfate for the purpose of reducing the irradiation damage. The degree of the irradiation damage and protection was recorded at the end of the vegetation period following some productivity indexes. The efficiency index of  the applied modifier was also determined.

Key words: oats, gamma- irradiation, radiosensitivy, radioprotectors, productivity

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DECONTAMINATION OF POULTRY LITTER BY PASTEURIZATION AT CONTINUOUS MESOPHILIC REGIME OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
T. Popova, O. Lutskanova

Abstract: The role of pasteurization for decontamination of poultry litter from broilers in bioreactor with continuous mesophilic regime of anaerobic digestion was studied. The changes of the quantities of a test strains of Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, resistant to antibiotics from the groups of the amphenicols and the tetracyclines were followed. The strains were introduced in quantities by 105 CFU/mL of the content of the bioreactor. When the pasteurization was done at 70 for 1 h at the entrance as well as at the exit of the bioreactor the test bacteria were not found out in the last bioshlame.   If the pasteurization of the poultry litter at 70 for 1 h was done only at the entrance of the bioreactor high degree of decontamination was achieved, but S. aureus was revealed up to 48-th h if only in very little quantities.

In a simultaneously conducted analogous experiment in continuous mesophilic regime of anaerobic digestion of poultry litter without pasteurization the introduced bacteria of the three strains in the same concentrations were inactivated during three weeks.
The pasteurization at 70 throughout 1 h is a certain method for decontamination of poultry litter in mesophilic regime of anaerobic digestion.

Key words: anaerobic digestion, mesophilic regime, poultry litter, pasteurization, test bacteria

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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TRANSESTERIFICATION OF MAHUA OIL USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

N. Kapilan, B. Baykov

Abstract. The gradual depletion of petroleum reserves, increasing demand of diesel and crisis of petroleum oil price eruption, leads to the biodiesel as a renewable substitute for the diesel. Mahua oil is one of the potential feedstock for biodiesel production in India, due to its high oil content, availability and non-edible in nature. In this work, biodiesel was produced from mahua oil by a two-step transesterification. The transesterification was carried out using microwave irradiation and the biodiesel yield was compared with the conventional heating. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for the microwave irradiation in this work. From the experimental results it is observed that the process using microwaves irradiation has effectively shortened the reaction time as compared with the conventional heating method. From the properties analysis it is found that the mahua oil biodiesel satisfy the fuel standards.

Keywords: Alternative fuel, mahua oil, transesterification, microwave, properties.

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REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS OF MAHUA OIL OPERATED COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE  

N. Kapilan, B. Baykov, R. Reddy

Abstract. The search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly has led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel oil in India.  When MO was used as sole fuel in Compression Ignition (CI) engine, higher smoke emission and lower thermal efficiency was observed. Hence in the present work, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was fumigated along with the air and the injection pressure was increased for the better atomization of MO. From the experimental results, it was observed that the performance of CI engine with MO+LPG dual fuel mode is comparable to diesel and better than MO. At the LPG energy share of 48.29%, MO+LPG dual fuel mode results in 29.67 % reduction in smoke emission as compared to MO. Also this dual fuel mode operation results in a marginal reduction in NOx emission as compared to Diesel+LPG dual fuel mode. From the analysis, it is concluded that the MO can be used as a partial, renewable, alternative substitute for the diesel in India, for the development of rural economy and energy security.

Keywords: Alternative Fuel, Mahua Oil, Diesel Engine, Emissions

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COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON SUBSTRATES FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN VIEW OF REGULATING THE NITRATE CONTENT IN THE DIGESTATE
O. Lutskanova

Abstract. The recovery of the balance of all nutrients and of the compromised mineral equilibrium in the agrocenosis is possible due to the fertilization process. The industrial production of mineral fertilizers is an energy-consuming process, which leads to substantial unrecoverable losses of energy. According to the EU requirements for decreasing the scale of soil and surface water pollution with nitric compounds (the nitrate directive), the purpose of the current investigations is to find possibilities for combining substrates in order to produce biogas and digestate with relatively low nitric oxide levels. This will comply with the conditions for sustainable agriculture by preserving soil, water, plant and animal genetic resources and will help protect the environment, being at the same time technologically accomplishable, economically justified and socially tolerant.

Key words: anaerobic digestion, substrate, digestate, nitrates

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF BULGARIAN MODULAR PLANTS PRODUCING BIODIESEL

R. Gyurov, P. Nikolov, St. Petrova

Abstract: Studies have been conducted to assess the possibilities of combining large refineries for biodiesel plants with modular installations, purpose of which is to utilize relatively small amounts of materials which are derived from typical extensive production of energy crops for some parts of the country or processed waste oil from food industry. After a comparative analysis of available systems in the country to established that they are designed for stationary conditions and large amounts of raw materials. We have attempted to make an environmental assessment and technical feasibility of the developed mobile installation by "Kondakov Energy Ltd.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Biodiesel modular plants, Batch- instantaneous technological cycle
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Continental movements due to strong earthquakes

B. Ranguelov

Abstract: The last strong earthquakes occurred during the last few years (in general Sumatra Mw9.0-2004 and ChileMw8.8-2010) produced large displacements measured by GPS. Due to the classic geodynamics the continental plates are considered as rigid bodies floating over the mantle substrate. Both strong events produced displacements with different amplitudes observed at different distances of the main ruptures produced by the earthquakes. The Sumatra event displacements were not so easy to be measured due to the ocean bottom rupture. The Chile seismic event produced large displacements of a big portion of the South America plate (more then 1 million km2) and they have been observed to the Atlantic ocean, thus meaning that the whole plate have been displaced. Such movements were not observable before the satellite GPS measurements have been introduced in the recent geodynamic practice.

Key words: strong earthquakes, continental movements, GPS measurements

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The Bulgarian Participation in the EU SCHEMA Project

G. Mardirossian, B. Ranguelov, Y. Kroumova

Abstract: The EU SCHEMA Project is targeted to the tsunami risk mapping and management of the emergencies appeared due to the tsunami hazard. The Bulgarian participation is by the expertise, data and experience for the selected test site of Balchik city. Tsunami modeling of the generation, propagation and inundation of the test site is performed using most advanced methodologies related to the space imaginary, real tsunami data and DEM and digital bathymetry. Vulnerability and risk maps are produced and presented to the end-users local and regional authorities.

Key words: EU SCHEMA Project, tsunami risk mapping

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RHODOPE GEOLOGICAL PHENOMENA GEOLOGICAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL

B. Kostova, R. Berberova

Abstract: This paper is an attempt to promote geological tourism in Bulgaria on the examples of certain geological formations located in the marbles and volcanic rocks in the Rhodope massive (Central and Eastern Rhodope). For the purpose, besides description and location of the sites, it is provided information on their geological origin which is directly related to the origin of the Rhodope. It is specified also later geological processes that change rocks after their initial formation.

Keywords: geological phenomena, geological tourism

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NATURAL RESOURSES RESEARCH IN THE EASTERN RHODOPE AREA FOR THE PROJECT HETEROTOPY AND NATURAL RESOURSES

R. Berberova, R. Gjurov, A. Bliznakov

Abstract: The purpose of this paper  is to present some of the research results on the project "Heterotopy and natural resources. Main researches were implemented in the region of Eastern Rhodopes.

Key words: astern Rhodope, natural resourses, project Heterotopy and Natural Resourses

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