EEEP 1/2011

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Actual state of THE Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, using aerospace and GPS data

V. Yanchev, I. Ivanova, R. Nedkov
pdf EN (PDF 1916k)

Abstract: In this paper we describe the actual state of Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, using aerospace and GPS data. The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is situated in the south-eastern part of Romania and the North of Dobrudja, being limited on its north side by the Danube River and Chilia Branch, at East by the Black Sea and at South and East by the hills of the Dobrudjan plateau. The methodology involves detection, identification and recognition of the components of Danube delta. A primary attention is given to floating reed islets which are typical for the region. The purpose of this paper is to analyse this state, which will be helpful for making an adequate decision for a better management of the reserve and preservation of these floating islands with minimum impact on the native flora and fauna.

Key words: Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, floating reed islets, aerospace data, satellite images.
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ACOUSTICAL PROBLEMS OF TRAM TRAFFIC IN BIG CITIES

N. Nikolov

pdf EN (PDF 3105k)
Abstract
: Tram traffic is one of the main sources of noise in cities. Compliance with noise level standards at the premises of buildings located on bilateral narrow streets is a serious problem. Its solution will require precise acoustical calculations which take into account all factors. The existing legislation does not meet the complexity of the problem. In the material are exposed new solutions to acoustic problems of tram transport in cities.

Keywords: Tram traffic, noise level, acoustical calculations
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Investigations of the river Kamchiya impact over the Varna Black sea coast status

A. Simeonova, J. Bekyarova, R. Chuturkova                                                                                             
pdf EN (PDF 112k)

Abstract: The status of river Kamchiya was investigated for 2006- 2010y. period at two monitoring stations -Poda and the Mouth which are the nearest one to the Varna Black sea coast. Ammonium, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen; phosphate; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), water hardness and pH were analyzed. With regard to the national threshold limits for II category water body the river was characterized with high oxygen concentrations, low ammonium, nitrate and phosphate concentrations. Low biodegradable organic substances were determined according to the values of BOD5 and COD. High nitrite concentrations, approximately 3 times above the limits were measured at the monitoring stations for the period. Regarding the influence of the river over the sea coast status nutrients concentration above the threshold limits for coastal waters were measured. At the Mouth station the nitrite nitrogen was 3 times above the limit, the nitrate nitrogen from 1,2 to 1,8 times and the phosphates from 3 to 6 times, which exhibited considerable influence of the river over the sea coast.

Keywords: monitoring, r. Kamchiya, nutrients, organic substances, threshold limits
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF YEAST STRAINS POTENTIAL TO ACCUMULATE CADMIUM IONS
A P
ERSPECTIVE PATHWAY FOR FUTURE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL NANOPARTICLE FORMATION

N. Krumov, A. Angelov, C. Posten

pdf EN (PDF 1810k)

Abstract. Nanoparticles unique properties and applications define the practical interest towards them and the consequent elaboration of different synthesis strategies. Understanding the process of biomineralization and the identification of microorganisms capable of producing nanoparticles under defined conditions, unveils new perspectives for the nanotechnology and facilitate its fusion with biotechnology. The main objective of the present scientific work was to compare selected biosynthetic and metabolic activities of yeast strains isolated from soil. As the bionanoparticle-formation mechanisms in yeasts are strain- and cultivation conditions-specific, the foreseen experiments aimed eventually to recognize and introduce new promising yeast strains with high potential for the synthesis of CdS bionanoparticles. Soil-isolated yeast strain designated as S. pombe NK05/2 demonstrated highest levels of specific cadmium accumulation 8.8 and 13.75 mg.g-1 BDM (bio dry mass) for both media tested, and exhibit the best biosynthetic characteristics.

Keywords: nanoparticles, yeast, cadmium, biomineralization
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RESULTS OF ANTI-EROSION AFFORESTATIONS IN KARDZHALI REGION

B. Yangyozov

pdf EN (PDF 1812k)

Abstract: Forests take important part in the process of soil formation and protection. Devastation of plant vegetation, however, usually leads to the development of intensive erosion, which in the mountains can be limited only by restoration of forest cover. An example of vast areas of destroyed forests and eroded lands, followed by large-scale afforestation is the region of Kardzhali. Field measurement and analytical methods were used for analyzing the results of the plantations, established to control the erosion in the region. Silviculture processes, running  in anti-erosion  forest plantations, their species composition and their role in habitat restoration were investigated. The analysis results provide guidance for future management of these plantations to ensure their function to control the erosion, as well as selection of forest tree species for future afforestations accordingly to the specific characteristics of the region.

Keywords: erosion, habitat, forest tree plantations, afforestation
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STUDY ON ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS OF FOREST VEGETATION IN THE REGION OF EAST RHODOPE ON THE BASE OF SATELLITES AND TERRESTRIAL DATA

M. Lubenova, R. Nedkov, I. Ivanova, A. Shikalanov, N. Georgieva, M. Zaharinova, M. Dimitrova, E. Ivanova, V. Yanchev, K. Radeva, N. Stankova, R. Tsoneva

pdf EN  (PDF 1378k)

Abstract: In this paper a study of forest vegetation in the territory of East Rhodope based on satellites, GPS and other terrestrial data is presented. The local areas of forest communities in classes and their distribution depending on the topography are defined. In this study we analyzed the Normalized Deferential Vegetation Index (NDVI) between forest classes. The study is the result of cooperation between specialists from SSTRI-BAS and Sofia University. This study is the initial stage of a comprehensive research on the dynamics and development of natural systems in Bulgaria.

Key words: ecological dynamics, forest community, satellites data, terrestrial data, East Rhodope Mountains
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MICROALGAE ARE PROMISING SOURCE OF BIOFUELS

K. Lahtchev, M. Doynova

pdf EN (PDF 624k)

Abstract: During the last decades microalgae emerge as promising organisms for industrial biofuel production. Microalgae are a large and diverse group of photosynthetic microorganisms capable to convert sun light and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. The reasons for steadily increasing attention to microalgae are their rapid growth and ability to accumulate high amount of lipids. Lipids can be easily extracted and used as biofuels without significant and expensive treatments. Additionally microalgae have some attractive characteristics such as their ability to utilize carbon dioxide from industrial gases and to purify waste waters. Microalgae can be cultivated on areas that are not suited for agricultural plants; their biomass is a subject of bio-degradation and can be used as food, feed and fine chemicals.  However, most of the widely distributed species in nature cant be used as biofuel donors, because they dont possess the necessary qualities for inexpensive production. Promising species also occur, but they are objects of genetic manipulations with the purpose to be created domesticated algae for biofuel manufacturing. This review describes some of the main microalgal species with biotechnological and genetic potential and the molecular manipulations for improving their growth rates and lipid content. The main difficulties that appear in front of scientists are also discussed.

Key words: microalgae, biofuels, Chlorella, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, genetic improvement

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ANALYSIS OF PUMPED HYDROELECTRIC STORAGE FOR A WIND/PV SYSTEM FOR GRID INTEGRATION

G. Notton, V. Lazarov, L. Stoyanov
pdf EN (PDF 971k)

Abstract: This paper deals with the pumping storage system analysis. The water reservoir serves for daily and seasonal energy storage, thus basically solving the problem of energy storage, which is the biggest problem of wider use of renewable energy sources. The electrical energy produced in excess by the renewable energy system is converted in potential energy by pumping water to a higher elevation where it can be stored indefinitely and then released to pass through hydraulic turbines and generate electricity. The estimation of the stored energy, the nominal electrical power of the hydroelectric plant and the evaporation rate of the water reservoir is presented.

Keywords: solar energy; wind energy; hybrid systems; pumped storage.
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INITIAL RESULTS OF STUDIES AND POSSIBILITIES FOR BIOMASS GASIFICATION IN BULGARIA
AND
INDIA

I. Ivanov, A. Saravananakumar, K. Kumar, P. Kaleychev
pdf EN (PDF 330k)

Abstract. The use of biomass as energy source has high priority in order to comply with the Kyoto Protocol for global reduction of the greenhouse emission. As result of scientific contacts and studies of researchers from Bulgaria and India begin join work in the field of biomass energy utilization in particular with biomass gasification. The aim of the paper is to present the initial results from the studies and possibilities for biomass utilization and gasification in the both countries Bulgaria and India. The paper describes in brief some studies regarding biomass potential, the policy and legislation and some measures implemented in Bulgaria. On the other hand it presents the experience in India regarding biomass gasification and possibilities for utilisation of biomass at low investments and high efficiencies. The applied method of a very high temperature biomass gasification technology has technical advantages. In this connection are presented some results of experiments in pilot installations concerning gasification of solid agriculture waste. As results are presented temperature of the gas outlet, inlet air pressures measured in time of the experiments and some dependencies and conclusions.

Keywords: Biomass, biomass gasification, renewable energy sources

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