Ecological assessment of technologies for utilization of domestic organic wastes
Bayko Baykov, Botyo Zaharinov 4
Bioprocess systems with fixed film - the base for development of ecological friendly technologies
The challenges in wastewater treatment technologies of the 21 century
Y. Topalowa 32
Critera for assessing chemical heterogeneity of biosphere
Kirov, B. Baykov, M. Gugova,
of balcan barbell (barbus petenyi) catchments
D. Rozdina, G. Raikova – Petrova 50
epigenetic characteristic of the zoomonitor yellow-necked wood mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) in park territories
G. Markov, M. Gospodinova 55
parameters of sediments in upper part
Y. Todorova and Y. Topalova 60
Application of Ardrea analysis for early warning of the effects of oil pollution in coastal marine ecosystems research into laboratory “microcosm” model
N. Todorova, I. Ivanov, A.
V. Karamfilov 69
III. Microorganisms and Environment
D. Parvanov, Y. Topalova, Y. Todorova, L. Kenderov 76
K. Krumova, V. Groudeva 84
V. Groudeva, A. Stoyanova, I. Ivanova 95
IV. Technologies for Depolution
K. Tsekova, D. Todorova, M. Ianis, S. Ganeva 104
N. Fuchedzhieva, T. Avramova, D. Galabova 109
A. Mirkov 114
V. Ecological and Sustainable Agriculture
S. Kotseva 119
VI. National and International Scientific Forums
National conference young scientists’ school “Ecological engineering and environment protection”
L. Nikolov 132
OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR UTILIZATION OF DOMESTIC ORGANIC WASTES
Bayko Baykov, Botyo Zaharinov
An analysis on the problem of biodegradable organic wastes has been carried out in terms of ecosystem protection. Some modern methods for biodegradable wastes utilization have been analyzed. Composting is relatively cheap and ecological technology but it needs a long period of time and considerable areas. The BTA-process technology gives the possibility to obtain energy – gas fuel (biogas); and a product used for increasing soil fertility – compost (bioslime), which contains all the necessary for plants macro and microelements. This technology is relatively expensive and needs a long period of time. The OXALOR technology is the only technology in which 98% of organics are stabilized into a long lasting product and treatment time is only 2.5 hours.
Words: composting, BTA-process, organic wastes
SYSTEMS WITH FIXED FILM - THE BASE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL
Ludmil Nikolov, Vjara Mamatarkova
Abstract: The key role of the bioprocess systems with fixed film
development of ecological friendly biotechnology is justified. The effectiveness of implementation of the
system approach as leading methodology in the bioprocess engineering of
is illustrated with examples in research and development activity for
wastewater treatment processes, bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions and
water denitrification. The importance of the system approach as a basis
creation and development of mathematical models is discussed. Special
is paid to the laboratory experimental set ups as functioning physical
models of industrial BPSFF and as sources of information about
model adequacy. As results of the
implementation of this approach, four principally new laboratory scale
are developed. Using mathematical models and living laboratory models
data for scale up of these BPSFF are obtained. They ensure the scale up
three of them and their testing under industrial conditions in open.
Keywords: bioprocess systems, biofilm reactor, bacterial oxidation, denitrification, decarbonization
CHALLENGES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES OF THE 21 CENTURY
Abstract: The challenges in wastewater treatment technologies of the 21 century are discussed in this paper. The technologies are considered as high technologies as well as technologies with high ecological integrity. The important accent is put on the control, simultaneously elimination of C, N, P, incorporation of governed detoxication element in the trivial technologies or development of intensive detoxication modules or algorithms, total process of biocontrol in ecoton of the water receivers, replacement of aerobic technologies by more effective – anaerobic. Other discussed challenges are: energy efficiency, transfer from large extensive to small local intensive equipment, direct mutual connection between technology, customers, water price as natural and technological resource.
wastewater treatment technologies, high ecological integrity, anaerobic
ASSESSING CHEMICAL HETEROGENEITY OF BIOSPHERE
Kiril Kirov, Bayko Baykov, Milena Gugova, Irina Popova, Atanas Bliznakov, Botyo Zaharinov, Silvia Kotzeva
Abstract. In the end of the 19th century Klarck proves that lithosphere in chemically heterogeneous. In 1934 Fersman proposes a quantitative criterion for assessing this heterogeneity – the Klarck (K) unit. In the 20th century Vernadsky determines the chemical heterogeneity in the biotic components of biosphere. Research is mainly carried out about determining the concentration or dispersion of chemical elements in autotrophs, due to the fact that they compose 90% of living matter. In this research we set our aim to propose new criterions for the assessment of chemical heterogeneity of biosphere by making a complex evaluation of the characteristics of movement of matter.
Key words: chemical
heterogeneity, lead, cadmium, biosphere
anthropologic pollution in the middle of the last century, ichthyofauna
petenyi, age, size,
bioindicator epigenetic characteristic of
zoomonitor Yellow-necked wood mouse (Apodemus
flavicollis) in park territories in Sofia
Georgi Markov, Milena Gospodinova
Abstract: Frequency distribution of phenotype realization of discrete alternative craniological traits – markers of genotype structure of wood mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) in populations inhabiting two park territories of Sofia under different human impact was determined.The obtained characteristics of epigenetic polymorphism of studied craniological morphogenetic markers reveals the possibility to be applied as information parameter in biomonitoring of urbanized environment condition through the zoomonitor A. flavicollis in the park territories of Sofia.
wood mouse, Apodemus flavicollis,
non-metrical characteristics, zoomonitor, urban territories.
ENZYMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SEDIMENTS IN
UPPER PART OF ISKAR RIVER
Yovana Todorova, Yana Topalova
enzyme activities with indicatory role for functioning of microbial
communities and rate of transformation processes have been investigated
sediments of upper part of
OF ARDREA ANALYSIS FOR EARLY WARNING OF THE EFFECTS OF OIL POLLUTION IN
MARINE ECOSYSTEMS. RESEARCH
INTO LABORATORY “MICROCOSM” MODEL
Nadezhda Todorova, Ivan Ivanov, Alexandar Hristov, Venzislav Karamfilov
Abstract. The present research is based on the advantages of ARDREA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Enzyme Analysis) - a high informative and easy applicable molecular fingerprint technique, which helps finding microorganism shift as one of the first changes in the whole ecosystem. Methods for isolating high quality and quantity of functional DNA from natural matrices have been approved and necessary set of 16S rDNA targeting primers and restriction endonucleases has been tested. Preliminary results, obtained from laboratory microcosm model show clear difference between 16S ARDREA profile patterns in pristine and oil-polluted sediment, most probably due to different microbial communities. Developed 16S rDNA-based ARDREA test-system, will be applied on natural ecosystems in order to approve it`s reliance.
Key words: ARDREA, 16S rDNA fingerprint, marine sand microcosm system, oil pollution
QUALITY ALTERATIONS IN RIVER ISKAR
Dimitar Parvanov, Yana Topalova, Yovana Todorova, Lubomir Kenderov
following paper is a part of the complex study and intends to provide
background for explaining spatial values characteristics of chemical
and microbial communities in the
Key words: Water quality, flood events, hyporheic water, river sediments , chemical and microbiological indicators.
OF ARSENICRESISTANT AND ARSENICTRANSFORMING
Krasimira Krumova, Veneta Groudeva
Abstract: Twenty eight bacterial strains, which are able to transform arsenic compounds, were isolated and characterized in the laboratory of ”Geomicrobiology” at the Department of “General and Industrial Microbiology”, SU “St. Kliment Ohridski”. It was determined, that 11 of these isolates are able to efficiently oxidize the high mobile and high toxic arsenite [As (III)] to less mobile and less toxic arsenate [As (V)]. The others 17 strains are able to reduce arsenate [As (V)] to arsenite [As (III)]. În the basis of the determination via classical methods, the isolated bacteria were related to different genera within the big group of sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Key words: Sulfate-reducing bacteria, arsenite oxidizing and arsenate reducing bacteria;
Procariotic tests for
assessment of metal toxicity in soil and water
Veneta Groudeva, Ana Stoyanova, Iliana Ivanova
Abstract. Prokaryotic tests are usually used for toxicity assessment of new synthesized chemicals and environmental samples. Their broad application is because of their rapidity, simple equipment and high sensitivity. Two prokaryotic tests for growth inhibition of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida [ISO 10712] were used for toxicity assessment of soil and waters, polluted with heavy metals. Bacillus cereus test have shown better sensitivity and short timing and was considered as more suitable for fast toxicity assessment of metal polluted soil and water in industry.
Keywords: growth inhibition, toxicity, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, prokaryotic test, metal pollution
METAL BIOSORPTION BY WASTE MYCEL OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER B77
Kolishka Tsekova, Dessislava Todorova, Maria Ianis, Sonia Ganeva
the ability of mycelial by product of glucoamylase producing Aspergillus
metals, waste biomass, Aspergillus
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROORGANISMS,
DEGRADING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AT AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC
Nadezhda Fuchedzhieva, Tatiana Avramova, Danka Galabova
Abstract: In this study we examine the potential of a natural microbial consortium for degradation of high toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The microbial consortium was isolated from the municipal waste treatment station ‘Kubratovo’. The three-ringed phenanthrene was used as a model aromatic hydrocarbon. The study was performed according to the next lines: estimation of the possibilities for efficient degradation of phenanthrene at aerobic and anaerobic conditions; role of an external factor- presence of oxygen- on the structure of the microbial consortium, utilizing phenanthrene and study on the degradation rates at aerobic and anaerobic conditions of selected microbial isolates.
Key words: polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons, aerobic and anaerobic degradation, microbial
BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE FOR
INDUSTRIAL BIOGAZ PRODUCTION FROM CATLES WASTES
protection from pollution with organic wastes and renewable energy
among the priorities of the biotechnological sciences.
Paper deals with the Bulgarian experience in the field of industrial biogaz production from catles wastes. An analysis of the main problems during their design, realization and operation (mainly of the Podgumer industrial biogas plant) is presented. The accumulated scientific and practical experience is analysed as a basis for future development of the biogas technologies in
BASIC ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES ON BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION FROM STOCK-FARMING
Abstract :Basic ecological principles on biological production from stock-farming” Basic ecological principals, applied in biological production from stock-farming: “ Regarding production of biological produce from agricultural animals here are three basic requirements: the production of nourishing and healthful animal source productions; humane attitude to animals; protection of the environment.
Key Words: ecological principles, biological production, extensive production, humane attitude, protection, priority, humanely