EEEP 1/ 2019
H. Najdenski 3-4
I. MAN AND BIOSPHERE
C. Faye, E. N. Gomis, S. Dieye 5-16
S. Naydenov, S. Petkova, P. Getsov, G. Mardirossian 17-25
II. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
T. Jokharidze, E. Kachlishvili, V. Elisashvili 26-36
E. Vasileva, T. Parvanova-Mancheva, V. Beschkov 37-53
Y. M. Baldé, C. Kanté, S. Diop, S. Tebbani 54-61
III. MICROORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT
M. Brazkova, P. Grozdanov, E. Chorukova, A. Krastanov
Najdenski H., V. Ilyin, P. Angelov, V. Hubenov, D. Korshunov, V. Kussovski, L. Dimitrova, I. Simeonov 71-78
Abstract: Water is essential for
human life, the socio-economic
improvement of the state and the protection of its natural
has a rich and diversified hydrological potential, most of
whose surface water
reserves are located in the basins of the Senegal and Gambia
rivers and in
groundwater. Unfortunately, water resources can be threatened by
anthropogenic actions of various origins and by the adverse
effects of climate
change. This article aims to analyze the current state of
water problems and prospects for the sustainable development
of water resources
in Senegal. Information is collected from secondary sources
statistics (books and the Internet). The results show the importance of Senegal's water
(in terms of surface and groundwater), water resources that
are often severely
deteriorated due to pollution, agricultural activities and
the rised water
demand from the population. This degradation is
likely to worsen with
population growth, development and climate change. For
example, the Senegalese
government has been conducting a water control policy for
several decades aimed
at providing the various sectors with water in sufficient
quantity and of appropriate
quality according to custom to accelerate development
balanced. There are
several policies and actions for the formulation of rules and
the general use of water. To be in line with the sustainable development goals (SDG), including
6, Senegal is committed to the sustainable management of water
ensure universal and equitable access to safe and affordable
drinking water for
all population by 2030.
Cheikh Faye1, Eddy
Nilsone Gomis2, Sidy Dieye3 1 Department of
Geography, U.F.R. Science and Technology, UASZ,
Laboratory of Geomatics and
Environment BP 523 Ziguinchor, Senegal. 2 Laboratory of Research
in Architecture, National School of
Architecture, University Jean Jaurès, Toulouse, 5
Alleys Antonio Machado 31
058, Toulouse Cedex 9, France. 3 Department of Geography,
Faculty of Letters and Human
Sciences, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar, Senegal.
Cheikh Faye1, Eddy Nilsone Gomis2, Sidy Dieye3
1 Department of Geography, U.F.R. Science and Technology, UASZ, Laboratory of Geomatics and Environment BP 523 Ziguinchor, Senegal.
2 Laboratory of Research in Architecture, National School of Architecture, University Jean Jaurès, Toulouse, 5 Alleys Antonio Machado 31 058, Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
3 Department of Geography, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, UCAD, BP 5005 Dakar, Senegal.
Keywords: integrated management, water resources, sustainable development, socio-economic development, Senegal
Stefan Naydenov2, Sonia Petkova2, Petar Getsov1, Garo Mardirossian1
1Space Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str, bl. 1, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria.
2 Phone: 359 888 160 111
Abstract: The question of the influence of magnetism on biological objects for years has been a debate with many contradictory opinions. The article provides a brief overview of publications and various and contradictory views on the influence of magnetic fields on living organisms and humans. An explanation is sought for findings made in various scientific studies, as well as an answer to the question: Can a permanent magnetic field be useful for our health and under what conditions?
Key words: magnetic field, health, diagnostic, physiotherapy, physiological response
Tina Jokharidze, Eva
Kachlishvili, Vladimir Elisashvili
Agricultural University of Georgia, 240 David Agmashenebeli alley, 0131 Tbilisi, Georgia.
Abstract. In the present study, the ability of eighteen white-rot basidiomycetes was evaluated for crude oil biodegradation. Cerrena unicolor strains, Panus tigrinus 433, P. lecometei 903, Pleurotus ostreatus 70, Trametes maxima 403, and T. versicolor 159 showed especially abundant mycelial growth on the surface of agar covered with droplets of crude oil. In the submerged cultivation in the glucose (3 g/L) containing medium, complete decolorization of indicator Resazurin was observed during two weeks in the presence of Bjerkandera adusta 139, C. unicolor 303, Coriolopsis gallica 142, P. ostreatus 70, P. pulmonarius 148, and T. versicolor 159. When artificially oil-polluted soil was inoculated with fungal mycelium pre-grown on a mixture of wheat straw and mandarin peels the maximum degradation rate (65%) was obtained when C. unicolor 305 was incubated in the 1% oil-containing soil for 28 days. At the same cultivation conditions, P. ostreatus 2175 eliminated 43.9% of initial oil when its concentration in the soil was increased to 2%. In the lignocellulose-containing soil, neither glucose nor yeast extract enhanced oil degradation, but wetting of soil with the distilled water to maintain its humidity favored oil elimination. The tested WRB secreted lignin-modifying enzymes in the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons; the higher was the concentration of lignocellulosic substrate in the soil the higher was the fungi enzyme activity. However, the data received did not show any direct relationship between the fungi enzyme activity and the degree of oil elimination.
Key words: mycoremediation, crude oil, basidiomycetes, cultivation conditions, lignin-modifying enzymes
Vasileva, Tsvetomila I. Parvanova-Mancheva, Venko N.
Institute of Chemical Engineering at the Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences
“Acad. G. Bonchev” str. Bl. 103 Sofia 1113, Bulgaria.
Abstract: Organic chemical mixtures are prevalent in waste waters from industrial and municipal sources as well as in contaminated groundwater. Phenols are pollutants found in wastewaters from oil refineries, chemical plants, explosives, resins and coke manufacture, coal conversion, pesticide and textile industries. The main contaminants of refinery wastewater include phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as heavy metals. Among these toxic pollutants, phenols are considered to be the most hazardous ones, and they are certainly the most difficult to remove. Phenolic compounds are toxic at relatively low concentration. Because of these low concentrations the most suitable methods for their removal are the microbial ones.
The present work is a review of biodegradation of phenol. Degradation of phenol occurs as a result of the activity of a large number of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. There are reports on ma33ny microorganisms capable of degrading phenol through the action of variety of enzymes. These enzymes may include oxygenases, hydroxylases, peroxidases, tyrosinases, oxidases etc. Batch experiments were carried out in a different bioreactors. Biodegradation of organic chemicals by microbes using pure cultures can produce toxic intermediates. This problem may be overcome by the use of mixed cultures that have a wider spectrum of metabolite degradation properties.
In this revew we described also some new technology for biodegradation of phenol like: different immobilization, FISH (Fluorescence in-situ hybridization) analysis, nanobiotechnologies and etc.
Keywords: phenol, biodegradation, microorganisms, enzymes, immobilization, FISH analysis, nanobiotechnologies
Younoussa Moussa Baldé1, Cellou Kanté2, Sette Diop3, Sihem Tebbani3
1 Laboratoire d’enseignement et de recherche en énergétique appliquée and the Laboratoire des signaux & systèmes.
2 Institut supérieur de technologie de Mamou Laboratoire d’enseignement et de recherche en énergétique appliquée Université Gamal Abdel Nasser de Conakry (UGANC) BP 063Mamou, Guinea.
3 Laboratoire des signaux & systèmes CNRS – CentraleSupélec – Université Paris-Sud – Université Paris Saclay 3 rue Joliot Curie 91192 Gif sur Yvette cedex, France.
Abstract: The present work is an account of an ongoing work on biogas production from animal wastes at LEREA (Laboratoire d’enseignement et de recherche en énergétique appliquée) in Mamou, Guinea. The work consists of biogas production from anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of cow dung and droppings. We focus in this report on the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the experimental setup. We have carried out three experiments of anaerobic digestion each one lasting 45 days at mesophilic temperature (temperature was maintained in the range 27°C - 28°C). Biogas - 28.4 liters have been obtained from droppings, 22.6 liters from cow dung and 38.7 liters from co-digestion of the previous two wastes. The following physico-chemical characteristcs were observed for cow dung: humidity 43%, dry matter 20.83%, organic matter 57%, density 625kg/m3, carbon content 31%, nitrogen content 1.46%, nitrogen-carbon ratio 21/30. For droppings we measured: humidity 35%, dry matter 65%, organic matter 62%, density 250 kg/m3, carbon content 36%, nitrogen level 1.83%. This characterization was carried out on a sample of 3 g of each type of substrate. These results agree with those of the literature that we were able to compare with.
Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; anaerobic co-digestion; physico-chimical characterization; cow dung weste; droppings weste; methanation; animal waste
Lyudmila Kabaivanova1, Adriana Goushterova1, Mariya Brazkova2, Petar Grozdanov1, Elena Chorukova1, Albert Krastanov2
1 Department of Applied Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 26, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str. 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.
2 Department of Biotechnology, University of Food Technologies 26, Maritza Blvd. 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
Abstract: This study reveals the selection of a yeast strain, possessing inulinase activity and finding the optimal conditions of cultivation. Intra- and extracellular activity assay was performed after cultivation on media, containing inulin as a sole source of carbon. Optimization of the cultivation conditions was carried out for establishing the favorable conditions for biosynthesis of inulinase. Modifying the physicochemical and nutritional parameters of a cultivation process lead to major improvement of the enzyme activity. Highest intra- and extracellular inulinase activity was registered when 1.5% inulin was used, 5 % inoculum, temperature 28°C, pH=6.5 and agitation of 200rpm. The selected strain Kluyveromyces sp. C showed higher values for the intracellular inulinase activity, making it suitable for immobilization and further use.
Key words: Kluyveromyces sp., inulinase activity, parameters optimization
Najdenski H.1, V. Ilyin2, P. Angelov3, V. Hubenov1, D. Korshunov2, V. Kussovski1, L. Dimitrova1, I. Simeonov1
Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of
2Russian Federation State Scientific Center -Institute for Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences.
3Space Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.Abstract: Anaerobic microbial biodegradation of cellulose containing wastes generated during the long-term manned space missions is a key technological approach for resolving the problem of wastes accumulated onboard of the spacecraft. Herewith are presented data on the possibilities of structurally stable multispecies microbial consortia originating from methanogenic bioreactors to decompose different cellulose substrates – filter paper, medical gauze and vegetable mix as potential cellulose wastes during space missions. The rates of biodegradation processes carried out at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions are not only measured and compared but are providing new opportunities for development of technology for microbial biodegradation of cellulose-rich organic wastes. Moreover, the studies have shown that paper and gauze hydrolysis with the help of cellulolytic bacterial communities can be an effective component of utilization of cosmonaut hygiene items. Biodegradation of plant wastes by community of anaerobic bacteria is promising and applicable tool also under terrestrial conditions. Light microscopy of bacterial communities reveals the presence of Gram-positive spore forming bacilli (short and long forms, bipolar and dividing cells) and typical clostridia forms.
Keywords: cellulose containing wastes, biodegradation, anaerobic digestion, bacterial consortia, long-term manned space missions