I. ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
M. Dimitrova, S. Etem, K. Jordanova, N. Chipev, Ts. Ignatova-Ivanova 5-11
II. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
D. Zgureva, S. Boycheva 12-18
L. Popova, K. Petrov, P. Petrova 19-23
III. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT
A. Nozhevnikova, Yu. Litty, M. Zubov 24-29
S. Penchev, V. Pencheva, L. Mihov 30-34
IV. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND BIOFUELS
B. Midyurova, B. Bonev, V. Nenov 35-40
V. SPACE TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
D. Avetisyan, R. Nedkov, D. Gotchev 51-61
A. Alexandrov, P. Popov, E. Nedkova 52-58
Zh. Udalova, Sv. Zinovieva 59-66I. Nikov
ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, MORPHOLOGICAL AND ADHESION PROPERTIES OF MICROORGANISMS FROM ANTARCTIC SOILS AND LICHENS
M. Dimitrova, S. Etem, K. Jordanova, N. Chipev, Ts. Ignatova-Ivanova
Abstract. In the
present study we present the results from the
isolation and study of microorganisms from Antarctic
soils and lichens. The soil and lichen samples were
gathered from the
Novel technical and economical
Abstract. The present paper is aimed on the preparation of zeolites from lignite coal fly ash using a superior synthesis approach that combines the advantages of different established technological schemes. The novel method is directed to improvement of the energy efficiency and the raw material economy, and at the same time resulting in better quality material. Fly ash zeolites of Na-X type were synthesized applying fusion stage of fly ash/NaOH mixtures followed by atmospheric self-crystallization. The obtained zeolite structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction for different periods of crystallization of the reaction mixtures under atmospheric conditions. Comparative studies of three different methods for synthesis of Na-X were performed taking into account the specific energy and the raw material consumption. It was considered that adsorbents of zeolite X type can be obtained by different ways of alkaline conversion of coal fly ash, and that is why the most important issues for the scale production of these materials are the economical aspects of the synthesis.
Keywords: synthesis of zeolites; adsorption; carbon emissions
Luiza Popova, Kaloyan Petrov, Penka Petrova
Abstract. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium with high potential to produce ethanol via fermentation of glucose, sucrose or fructose. The need for broadening of its substrate spectrum requires the development of suitable host-vectors systems for gene cloning. Here we report the construction of a new shuttle vector, applicable to hosts Escherichia coli DH5α and Zymomonas mobilis DSM424. It was based on pCR2.1-TOPOTM (E. coli) and contained the amplified and cloned replicon fragment (dso ori and repA gene) of 2.7 kb plasmid of Z. mobilis. As a reporter gene, cloned under Plac promoter control, was used amyBL encoding α-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis strain 44MB82/G. The obtained results revealed good stability of the shuttle vector pZT1 in both hosts, as E. coli DH5α possessed also a high amylase activity due to the extracellular expression of the reporter gene. Z. mobilis DSM424 was able to maintain the shuttle vector, but amyBL was very poorly expressed, thus indicating that Plac promoter is rather not suitable for gene expression in this organism.Key words: Shuttle vectors, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Amylase
A.N. Nozhevnikova, Yu.V. Litty, M.G. Zubov
Abstract. The process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is carried out by newly discovered anammox bacteria. They have a number of morphological, physiological and biochemical properties that other bacteria lack. For use on construction sites of the Winter Olympics 2014 in Sochi, there has been developed a new biotechnology of wastewater treatment with immobilization of microbial activated sludge and efficient removal of nitrogen with the participation of anammox-bacteria, and has been created a compact, environmentally friendly wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) prefabricated in block structures. The principles of the new technology and the design of full-scale 100-1000 m3/day "BCH-ECOS" plants were based on the results of laboratory-scale microbiological studies and experimental-industrial trials that have confirmed the application perspectives of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). The new technology involves a pretreatment of incoming raw water by coagulation in order to precipitate the suspended solids. A significant part of phosphorus compounds is being precipitated at the same time. Aerated water, high in nitrate and nitrite, is recycled from the last corridor of aeration tank into the denitrifying reactor, which is located at the beginning of biological treatment and receives ammonia-rich water. Conditions for the development of nitrogen removing denitrifying and anammox-bacteria are thereby created in the anaerobic denitrifying bioreactor. Brush-shaped carrier is applied at all stages of biological treatment for immobilization of active microbial sludge. Treated water passes through the dense brush-shaped carrier filters and granular anthracite filters. The quality of the treated water exceeds the requirements for discharging into water bodies.
Key words: anammox-bacteria, effective nitrogen removal, biotechnology of wastewater treatment, immobilized activated sludge
Soya Penchev, Vasilka Pencheva, Luben Mihov
Abstract. DIAL method is proposed for determination of the abundance of atmospheric methane. The spectral properties of laser radiation of high- power pulsed laser diodes are optimised within the molecular absorption bands of 1.55- 1,625 mm of this major greenhouse gas. The characteristic broad laser line of the selected laser diodes modulated by the selected explicit absorption spectrum is explored by computational convolution based on HITRAN reference data on spectral linestrengths. The lidar scheme is ultimately compact, of low- energy consumption and suggests a large potential for ecological monitoring.
Keywords: Ecological monitoring, atmospheric methane, powerful laser diodes
Blagovesta Midyurova, Bogdan Bonev, Valentin Nenov
Abstract. The microbiological fuel cell with air cathode is a promising alternative for sustainable power generation, improvement the MFC construction and elimination of external electron acceptors of chemical nature. Protons, electrons and oxygen from air reacting at the cathode produce molecules of water.
Key words: microbial
fuel cells, air- cathode
Abstract.The climate changes and the anthropogenization have been a prerequisite for development of negative trend processes during the last decades, which has resulted in degradation of vegetation and deforestation in particular. This leads to alternation of landscape structure and statement of landscape components. Simultaneously, these processes are accompanied by changing of heat–moisture ratio in landscapes, and continuously running drought processes. Aim of the present study is to trace the climatic condition in the region for the period from 1987 to 2013 and to study their impact on the state and dynamics of the forest vegetation. Variations in the activity of specific geoeffective components of solar activity can be considered as one of the possible factors causing vegetation cover degradation, drought, and desertification. In order to achieve this goal Remote Sensing and GIS methods are applied and widely recognized indices as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDWI (Normalized Difference Water index) and VCI (Vegetation Condition Index) were calculated. Possible correlations with solar activity are studied.
Keywords: Vegetation indices; remote sensing and GIS; climate data
Alexander H. Alexandrov, Peter Popov, Elena NedkovaAbstract: Norway spruce at an experimental plantation Govedartsi- Rila mountain in
Keywords: Norway spruce, provenances, cone scales shape, Squared Mahalanobis Distances.
Zhanna Udalova, Svetlana Zinovieva
Abstract. Biogenic elicitors induce systemic resistance of plants to plant parasitic nematodes - Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera rostochiensis ( decrease in the parasitic invasion of the roots; an inhibition of the vital activity of the parasite; a decrease in fertility and the amount of agents sources (larvae and eggs) capable of infecting the plants). The addition of signal molecules (salicylic and jasmonic acid) to elicitors increased their activity as immunomodulators. In present investigation the mechanisms of induced plant resistance nematode were studied. The data obtained suggest that the mechanisms natural and induced by biogenic elicitors tomato resistance to the nematode have the same origin. These features meet all requirements of the new generation of methods of plant protection and the use of biogenic elicitors to raise plant resistance to parasitic nematodes may be promising. Key words: nematodes, systemic acquired resistance, elicitors, signal molecules, chitosan, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid
Iordan NikovAbstract. Biological treatment through the use of natural molecules has presented as an ecofriendly alternative. Here, we focus on the versatile utilization of Bacillus subtilis based products, more especially the lipopeptides surfactin and fengicin, as biopesticides. The present work proposes two types of reactors for surfactin and fengicin production or its mixture and some examples of direct applications of these lipopeptides. Free and immobilized cells were used. It was demonstrated that kLa (oxygen transfer coefficient) is the key parameter controlling the productivity and the selectivity of the bioreaction. Varying the oxygen transfer conditions, the synthesis could be oriented to mixed production or to surfactin/fengycin mono-production. The fraction of surfactin towards total lipopeptides produced and the maximal surfactin production both increased with kLa increase (surfactin concentration about 2 g /l at kLa = 0.04–0.08 s-1), while the maximal fengycin production (fengycin concentration about 0.3 g/l) was obtained at moderate oxygen supply (kLa = 0.01 s-1).
words: biopesticides, surfactin, fengicin, disk
reactor (RDR), inverse fluidized bed, kLa