EEEP 4/ 2018


.            3-4

I.

 

            5-9

(Apis Mellifera L.)

            10-16

II.

            17-25

III.

e , -,             26-38

IV.

            39-46

V.

, :

            47-59

            60-69

VI.

14-             70-71

VII.

     72-74

VIII.


 

 


























ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLISHED IN AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA NOISE ABATEMENT PROCEDURES

Tonko Petkov

Abstract: In aeronautical information publication of the Republic of Bulgaria (AIP) inter alia are declared applicable to a given date noise abatement procedures around international airports in Bulgaria. In material provides an overview and analysis of the procedures for reducing aircraft noise. Analyse shortcomings and proposed measures for improving the scope of those measures.

Key words: aviation noise, noise management procedures

up

(APIS MELLIFERA L.)

RELATION BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF COLLECTED POLLEN BY THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) AND ITS PROTEIN CONTENT

Zheko Radev

Abstract: Botanical analyses of the collected pollen indicat that honey bees prefer to collect pollen from 5 to 6 plants species during every single month. It is not proven difference and there is no relation between amount of pollens collection and their protein content. The amount of pollen that the bees collect depends on the population of the certain plants that bees visit. We have to take into account the differences in the discoveries of bees-scouts, when searching for new crops, flower type, the number of flowers, bees direct access pass, the distance to the hives, ecological factors and etc. When flowering introduced agricultural plants, bees collect most of them pollen, depence on the climate condition. The results of the study show that the wide variety of pollen provide the taxons of naturally occurring flora, over 75%-80%. From ecological point of view, it is necessary to conserve the natural flora in order to ensure the normal feeding of the bees and the maintenance of the biodiversity.

Key words: pollen, protein content, honey bee, Apis mellifera L.

up

REVIEW OF POSSIBILITIES FOR ORGANIC ACIDS SEPARATION BY EXTRACTION ROUTE

Svetlana Zhivkova

Abstract: The liquid-liquid extraction process is a highly selective method and one of the most versatile procedures used for the extraction, separation and concentration of a variety of organic and inorganic components from various aqueous media with a wide range of initial concentrations, and a process with the lowest cost for obtaining a high quality ends products. It has a wide application in the purification of production solutions and the recycling of waste from the industry. As a result, environmental pollution is reduced and an opportunity for utilizing of important human life components is created. Carboxylic acids are present in the wastewater of various industries. In some cases the production of an acid by means of fermentation also leads to the production of another acid as a bio-product, i.e. the two acids co-produce each other. Given the widespread use of organic acids in the food, pharmaceutical, chemical and textile industries, new extraction methods have been developed for their recovery and separation with a view to their subsequent applications. The aim of this study is to review the some possibilities for separating some monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic organic acids from their binary or tertiary mixture solutions by liquid-liquid extraction using the appropriate organic phase.

Key words: organic acids, liquid-liquid extraction, TBP, TOA.

up

e , -,

MICROORGANISMS AND THE SPACE

Dencho Denchev, Jeni Miteva-Staleva, Venelin Hubenov

Abstract: Microorganisms have a high adaptive ability to extreme conditions of the space environment thanks to phenotypic and genetic amendment. These changes can affect astronauts, especially on long-duration space flights. This review aims to identify and analyze literary data relating to the biological diversity of microorganisms isolated and surviving in space, the impact of these conditions on the physiological and productive capabilities of microbial cells and the possibilities for their application for the removal and recovery of waste on long-haul space flights. Very serious attention is paid to the anaerobic digestion of sanitary wastes (which are mostly cellulosic), especially for long-haul space flights.

Keywords: space, microorganisms, diversity, survival, productivity

up

SOIL ASSESSMENT OF BROWN FOREST SOILS IN THE WESTERN RHODOPE MOUNTAINS

Simeon Bogdanov

Abstract. The paper presents results from experience to soil assessment on Brown Forest soils (Dystric - Eutric Cambisols, FAO 2006) in the Western Rhodope Mountains. The soils are situated in the Middle forest vegetation zone (700 2000 m a.s.l.) of the Thracian forest vegetation area. The soil assessment is consisted on differentiation of researched soils according to their silvicultural properties. They are determined on the base of soil depth, content of humus, total N, and soil available water. The bonitet of stands and the composition of tree species have been analyzed as indicators of the soil silvicultural effect. Conformity between soil silvicultural properties and soil silvicultural effect has been established.

Key words: brown forest soil, soil assessment, soil silvicultural properties, forest stands

up

, :

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FUNCTIONING OF THE PROCESSES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: A REVIEW

Nora Dinova

Abstract: The multistepness of the process of anaerobic digestion and the complexness of the microbial consortium that performs it make the technologies for biogas production dependable of multiple factors. What are they, what are their optimal boundaries and the consequences of their deviations are discussed in details in the present article. The selection and combination of substrates, the sustainability of the optimal technological parameters and the purposive functional control are of essential importance for the effectiveness, efficiency and optimization of these technologies.

Key words: anaerobic digestion, biogas, impact, factors, methanogenesis, substrates

up

PHYSICAL MODELING  AND RESEARCH OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS WITH SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS IN LABORARORY CONDITIONS

Zahari Zarkov

Abstract: The article presents the experience of the author in the area of physical modeling of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) with synchronous generators and electronic converters. A small power test bench is developed in the Laboratory of Renewable Energy Sources (Electrical aspects), Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Technical University - Sofia that gives the possibility to study the processes in WECS in laboratory conditions. The application of flexible dSPACE DS1104 microprocessor platform allows implementing the control of the electronic converters in the system, but it also makes possible to monitor and change the control parameters of a running system. Integration with Matlab/Simulink gives great possibility to quickly test control models that are already simulated and have to test their properties in real-world conditions. Some experimental results are also presented that prove the full functionality of the created physical model.

Keywords: Environmental impact, dSPACE platform, Physical modeling, Wind energy conversion systems, Wind turbines

up