EEEP 3-4/ 2023

    

      

       .                  3-4

    I.

      (Sauria, Reptilia)

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  III. .

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II.

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1,5-

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III.

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IV.

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V.

. 2.

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VI.

2019 2022

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VII.

12- ,
        1
-6 2023 ., . , . ,                         103-106

" " (EEEP'2024)

       6-9 2024 ., ,                        107-108












 











 



,   (SAURIA, REPTILIA)

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ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND ENZYMES POTENTIAL VIRULENCE FACTORS IN OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE CLOACAL MICROFLORA OF LIZARDS (SAURIA, REPTILIA)

S. Engibarov, I. Lazarkevich, S. Mitova, R. Eneva, Y. Gocheva, E. Vacheva, S. Popova, N. Stanchev, Y. Ilieva
Abstract: The detection of pathogens that could be transmitted from animals to humans and pose a potential health risk is a matter of increasing importance. Reptiles are known to be asymptomatic carriers of various zoonotic pathogens. We isolated and identified 24 opportunistic bacteria from the cloacal microflora of five lizard species, belonging to Lacertidae, Scincidae and Anguidae families. Their antibiotic susceptibility and enzyme production (sialidase, sialate aldolase, protease, lipase, hyaluronidase, gelatinase) as virulence factors were evaluated. The majority of the isolates were not resistant to most of the applied antibiotics. We found limited extracellular enzyme production (proteases were detected in 14, sialidase in 3, lipase in 2 and gelatinase in 4 isolates). One isolate - Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicated a relatively high pathogenic potential. The limited production of enzymes that could play role in pathogenesis, and the antibiotic susceptibility of most isolates, suggest a relatively low health hazard. However, their opportunistic character should be kept in mind in close contact with reptiles because of a potential risk of infection.

Keywords: virulence factors, sialidase, protease, lipase, gelatinase, antibiotic susceptibility, reptiles, cloacal microflora

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III.

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CONSTRUCTION OF ELECTRICAL INFRASTRUCTURE NEAR THE HABITATS OF PROTECTED BIRD SPECIES
PART III. METHODOLOGICAL GUIDELINES FOR MEASURES AIMING MINIMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

G. Stoilov, N. Nikolov, D. Stoilov

Abstract: The article is the third in a series dedicated to the problems in our country realted to the construction and securing of electrical infrastructure near the habitats of protected bird species. This third article outlines the methodological considerations and guidelines for respective technical and organizational measures concerning the electrical infrastructure that ensure minimal impact on the environment. As a result of the adoption and implementation of these measures, the impact on the habitats of birds, as well as on the birds themselves, will be minimized and the populations could be preserved. Over or near many of the wetlands where protected bird species nest, there are dangerous power transmission and distribution networks with their associated facilities. It is necessary to gradually replace them with adequate facilities in the sectors that are determined as riskiest for the bird populations. Until then, overhead lines that cannot be laid underground should be secured by means of wire marking devices and suitable bird proof insulation for pole and tower mounting.

Keywords: electrical infrastructure, electrical power lines, securing, impacts on birds, technical measures, environmental impact

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PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR SLUDGES MANAGEMENT FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

S. Marinova

Abstract. The article provides information on the sludge, obtained during the biological treatment of wastewater. Sludge is an ecological problem, as it accumulates in the area of the stations, hinders their functioning and pollutes the natural environment. The sludges are also an organic reserve, in connection with the lack of organic fertilizers in our country and disturbed balance of organic matter in the Bulgarian soils. Numerous studies have established that sludges are bomass, rich in macro and microelements and organic matter. The practical rules and guidelines for sludge management in Bulgaria are indicated. The issues of legislation and normative documents, which determine the requirements for the utilization of sludge in practice, were considered, sampling, the influence of sludge in the soil, etc. The possibilities for the utilization of the sludge - in agriculture, for re-cultivation of disturbed and poorly productive terrains, for composting, for the production of biogas, etc. are indicated. The emphasis is mainly on the use of sludge in agricultural practice as a soil improver, and a list of the necessary documents for issuing permits for their use in agricultural practice is presented.
Keywords
: sludge, management, regulations, legislation, permits.


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1,5-

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OXIDATION OF 1,5 - POLYENES WITH NITRIC ACID AS A MODEL  FOR WASTE RUBBER VULCANIZATES UTILIZATION

M. Dimov, V. Hubenov
Abstract
: In the present work, the possibility of reusing standard fresh polymers (natural, synthetic isoprene, butadiene, butadiene-styrene and chloroprene rubber) and waste vulcanizates, through their oxidation with nitric acid, is considered. Oxidation of cis-1,4-isoprene, chloroprene and butadiene rubber gives main products: polyfunctional oligomer (PFO) and oxalic acid, and vulcanization oligomer, oxalic acid and carbon black. Oxalic acid has the highest yield in the oxidation of cis-1,4-isoprene, cis-1,4-chloroprene rubber and waste vulcanizate. The yield of oxalic acid is affected by the amount of nitric acid used, temperature and reaction time. It has been proven that the succinic acid formed as a result of oxidative destruction turns into oxalic acid.
Keywords:
waste vulcanizates, oxidation, polyfunctional oligomers, oxalic acid

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ASSESSMENT OF POST-FIRE ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS USING REMOTE SENSING METHODS: A REVIEW

N. Stankova

Abstract:
Forest fires are an increasing problem for European Union countries located in the southern parts of Europe. Climate change is believed to be one of the main reasons of the fires. Since field research requires both time and money and is focused on a specific fire-affected area, the aim of this paper is to present an alternative approach using remote sensing methods to assess post-fire ecological effects. An overview of existing remote sensing methods used to assess the consequences and post-fire ecological effects is reviewed. Remote sensing methods have great potential for studying the heterogeneity and spatial distribution of burned areas. Satellite data allow researchers to conduct multi-scale and spatially detailed analyzes of fires in terms of topography, structure, and vegetation before and after the fire.

Keywords: remote sensing, satellite data, post-fire monitoring, burn severity, vegetation indices

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STUDY ON FLIGHT OF THE SUMMER AND WINTER FORM OF PINE PROCESSIONARY MOTH

G. Zaemdzhikova

bstract. In present work, the flight dynamic of the summer and winter form of Thaumetopoea pityocampa was studied. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions (room temperature and natural lighting). A bimodal and even a trimodal distribution of flight over time with multiple peaks has been found. Our preliminary results show a lack of dependence of multimodal flight distribution with temperature fluctuations in the study area. The statement, that the flight of the winter form begins around the date of the summer solstice (21.06.2021) is confirmed, and their flight period coincides with the hottest time of the year (June and July). Conversely, the flight of the summer form begins a month earlier (May-June) and precedes the hottest time of the year. No relationship was found between the time of peak flight and the length of the flight period. On the other hand, a relationship between the time of their occurrence and the culmination of local temperatures has been established.
Keywords
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flight period, multimodal distribution, summer solstice, Bulgaria.
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ANALYSIS OF SOIL RESOURCES
IN THE EASTERN BALKAN MOUNTAINS FOOTHILL
S. Bogdanov, P. Pavlov

Abstract.
Soil fertility is a major factor for the existence, development and normal functioning of forest ecosystems, which emphasizes the need for research on soil content and properties. This is a base for planning of the silvicultural activities to improve the ecological conditions in the forest ecosystems. The analysis of soil properties that express the soil fertility in terms of forest tree vegetation helps in this aspect. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the soil resources in the Eastern Balkan Mountains foothill. Cinnamonic Forest soils (Chromic Luvisols), Gray Forest soils (Gray Luvisols) and Humus-Carbonate soils (Rendzinas) have been investigated. Based on the adopted model for fertility assessment, the studied soils have been divided into quality groups such as low-, medium- and high-fertility. The textural differentiation of lessivated soils decreases the effective soil depth and could support erosion processes. The physical and chemical properties of carbonate soil-forming rocks are a prerequisite for erosion and lack of soil available nutrients and moisture.
Keywords: analysis, soil resources, Chromic Forest soils, Gray Forest soils, Rendzinas.

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CHANGES IN SILVICULTURAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS
INFLUENCED BY FOREST FIRES IN BULGARIA

S. Bogdanov

Abstract. The existence and the natural ecologic functioning of the forests depends on the natural and anthropogenic forest fires. They are an important disturbance in the forest ecosystems affecting not only the vegetation and soil, but all environmental aspects. Mostly affected are young stands located in the Lower forestry zone where there is a lack of conditions for successful natural restoration. In most cases this leads to human impact for supporting the restoration of the affected areas through artificial afforestation that is connected with extensive research on the soils silvicultural properties. The paper presents an overview of the changes in the silvicultural properties of the soils influenced by forest fires in Bulgaria. It was found that soils with more nutrients and clay, and greater biogenicity are more resistant to fire impact and recover their silvicultural properties faster. The indicators that most accurately show the impact of forest fires on soils are the changes in the content of total C, total N and mobile forms of Ca, pH and soil texture. These indicators reflect the power of the impact of fire, and their values are consistent with visible signs adopted to categorize the fires according to their impact on forest stands.

Keywords: forest fire, soil, silvicultural properties, forest stands.

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BIOGAS AND BIOGAS TECHNOLOGIES. Part
2. BIOREACTORS AND BIOGAS PLANTS

I. Simeonov

Abstract.
This article presents the main components of biogas plants - anaerobic bioreactors (with various auxiliary means for heating, stirring, burning excess biogas, etc.), devices for storing (methantanks) and purifying biogas, tanks for digestate, etc. Attention is paid to the preparation and storage of the raw materials for AD and the devices for their feeding into the bioreactors. A brief review of the different types of existing anaerobic bioreactors and the prospects for the development of new types of such is Mazda.

Keywords: biogas plants, anaerobic bioreactors, methantanks, substrates pretreatment, biogas purification, digestate storage

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2019 2022
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RADIATION MONITORING OF THE ENVIRONMENT
AT INRNE BAS FOR THE PERIOD 2019 2022
V. Variyska,
D. Tonev, H. Protohristov
Abstract. The results of measuring the gamma background on the territory of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences for the period 2019-2022, including the beginning of military operations in the area of the Chernobyl and Zaporizhia NPPs in Ukraine, are presented.
As a result of the processing of the received data and the prepared analysis for the measured level of radioactivity was made reasoned conclusion that as a result of the military actions in Ukraine wasn`t established increase in the level of radioactivity on the territory of Bulgaria.
Keywords: radiation monitoring, gamma background, INRNE, war in Ukraine

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