EEEP 3/ 2019


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In Memoriam

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POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS ON THE USE OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE INDUSTRY

Sevdalina Turmanova, Gergana Peeva

Abstract: The carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas causing. It absorbs heat causing raising of Earth average temperature. In 2003, the European Parliament and the Council of the EU identified climate change as a priority area of action.

On the other hand, carbon dioxide has been used in industry for over a century. Carbon dioxide can be used and used in two main ways: through biological and chemical transformation (the production of synthetic and designer fuels, polymers, plastics, organic chemistry) and direct use (the production of food, oils).

The main strategies for reducing of carbon dioxide emissions aiming capture and storage of CO2. Bulgaria is also implementing measures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emission, industry, strategies of CO2 reducing

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GREEN ROCKET ENGINES FOR CIVIL PURPOSES

Neli Siveva, Kalin Krumov, Goro Krumov, Silvia Venkova, Hristofor Skandaliev

Abstract: A substantial need for replacement of the currently used construction materials of the latest generation aircraft based on polymers and composites of petroleum products is existed. The aim of the study is fire tests in a real working environment of a new generation of environmentally friendly solid rocket propellant engines, completely degradable in the nature. Test results including internal engine ballistics and thermo-mechanical characteristics of composite materials after burning of rocket fuel are presented.

Keywords: Aerospace technologies, rocket engines, composites, ecology

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CONDITION OF THE ENVIRONMENT OF DRAGOVISHTITSA RIVER BEFORE THE NEW MINING AND GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING ACTIVITIES IN THE REGION

Anton Sotirov, Dana Malwood, Nikola Pistalov, Siana Savova, Neli Siveva, Hristofor Skandaliev, Tomislav Skandaliev, Viktor Sotirov, Krasimir Sotirov

Abstract. It is suggested that despite the small population in the region, the pressure on the river ecosystem by the local population is very strong. The biggest ecological problem of the river is the non-observance of environmental standards by the local population. According to unpublished data, number of natural and legal persons carrying out gold mining, and with non-organic methods and means using of mercury amalgam for extraction of gold on site, prospecting, extraction, enrichment without approved projects and without recultivation of the terrain, etc. The region is rich in minerals and in their search, exploration and extraction there is nothing wrong, as long as it is legal, in compliance with environmental norms, on a scientific basis.

Key words: environment, Dragovishtitsa river, mining activities

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FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS ON ECOLOGY AND BIOPHYSICS DEVELOPMENT

Ilia Christov

Abstract. The paper deals with a surveys on the historical development of basic ideas on the emergence and separation the scientific knowledge in physics, biology, chemistry, ecology, etc. The general structure of biophysics is presented. The significance of methodology and achievements in biophysics for solving the global and regional problems of ecology are emphasised.

Key words: emergence of sciences, historical development, ecology, etiology, biophysics, living and inanimate nature

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NATURAL DISASTERS IN BULGARIAN FORESTS

Alexander Alexandrov, Zdravko Bakalov

Abstract: The natural hazards include cosmic, geological, water, fire, meteorological and health disasters. Some data about them though partial exist as far back as ancient times, while they were described more detailed and precisely during XIX and XX century and particularly in the last decades. From meteorological disasters in Bulgarian forests badly distractive are windfalls and tornado. A windfall at Rila monastery forests in the year 1893 affected 4,000 dka with growing stock of about 200,000 m3 and over again in 2011 uprooted some thousand beech trees. A tornado in 1961 destroyed valuable coniferous forests in the Western Rhodopes in a strip with length of approximately 40 km and width to 1 km spreading all over a territory of 28,000 dka as trees with growing stock of 1 million m3 were rooted out and broken off. A tornado at Vitosha Mt. in 1956 affected 2,000 dka while 750 dka of Norway spruce stands were fallen down in 2001. The most damages over forest ecosystems however cause fires. Particularly affected by fires were forests in the Rila-Rhodope massif. They were set on fire by shifting livestock-breeding in order to open new grazing grounds. The forest fire statistics in the country during XX century presents some peaks (burned down 270,000 dka in 1903 and 172,640 dka in 1993) but at the beginning of XXI century is observed a sharp increasing of forest areas destroyed by fire: 574,000 dka (2000), 201,500 dka (2001), 430,000 dka (2007) and 127,300 dka (2012). The next in turn disasters in Bulgarian forests are result of withering, pest attacks and diseases. The diseases and drying of forest plantations and stands in recent years are increasing, reaching 247,531 dka during the year 2017 while damages from beetle calamities affect 174,049 dka. Methods for management of forests in order to reduce the natural hazards are investigated and recommended.

Key words: windfalls, tornado, forest fires, calamities, torrents.

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SOIL ASSESSMENT OF GRAY FOREST SOILS  IN NORTHWEST BULGARIA

Simeon Bogdanov

Abstract. Soil assessment is important for environmentally friendly use of forest resources and their sustainable development. It provides a basis for optimization of forest stand composition in order to effective use of soil fertility and maximum economic effect in the forestry activities. The paper presents results from experience to soil assessment on Gray Forest soils (Gray Luvisols) in Northwest Bulgaria. The soils are situated in the Lower forest vegetation zone (0 600 m a.s.l.) of the Misian forest vegetation area. Soil assessment is consisted on differentiation of researched soils according to their silvicultural properties. They are determined on the base of soil depth, content of humus, total N, and soil available water. The bonitet of stands and the composition of tree species have been analyzed as indicators of the soil silvicultural effect. Conformity between soil silvicultural properties and soil silvicultural effect has been established.

Key words: gray forest soil, soil assessment, soil silvicultural properties, forest stands.

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FOREST FIRES IN BULGARIA FOR THE 2009-2018 DECADE

Hristo Tsakov, Alexander Alexandrov, Olympia Roeva, Dafina Zoteva

Abstract: Forest fires annually affect large areas in Bulgaria, cause changes in forest ecosystems and cause unpredictable environmental consequences. At the same time, forest fires are one of the biggest pollutants of the environment. After the burning of the plant organics, the structure, nutrient and humus stock of the soil are changed. Water run-off changes, microclimate and business conditions deteriorate.

For 2009-2018, 4366 forest fires occurred and 493480 decares of forests were destroyed. Frequently repeated drought periods in the last decade (2009-2018) have led to an increase in the number of forests fires, a reduction in species diversity, as well as the natural restoration of the burnt areas.

In 2018, 222 fires were recorded in forests. In the autumn season, forests fires were 139. There is a new moment of increase of the fires at the beginning of winter, as well as a year-round change of the fire activity with two maximums: in the spring February, March and mid April, and in the summer in July, August and September.

The article discusses issues related to the dynamics, seasonal distribution, burnt areas by type of property, the causes of the occurrence and the material damage caused by the forest fires for the decade 2009-2018. The analysis of the fire situation in Bulgaria is based on the data published in the annual reports of the Executive Forest Agency by regional directorates in chapter Forest protection from fires (2009-2018).

Keywords: forest fires, causes, burnt areas, material losses.

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ASSESSMENT OF BIOCHAR AND VERMICOMPOST AND EFFECT OF COMPOST MIXTURES

Svetla Marinova, Nicholas Kathijotes, Elena Zlatareva

Summary. There are natural products that are add to the soil to stimulate the growth of plants. These are biochar and vermicompost. The low content of the basic macronutrients in biochar requires composting  with nutrient - rich materials such as vermicompost, manure, sludge, mineral fertilizers, etc. The aim of the study is to evaluate  vermicompost and biochar and to prepare compost variants with the participation of individual products in different proportions depending on their qualities. To determine their effect as soil improvers in pot experiments. The values of essentially biogenic elements are higher in vermicompost, while in biochar they are significantly lower. The studied heavy metals are below the MAC. Three compost mixtures were prepared with different participation of the two starting products, depending on their properties and their effect in growing experiments on  2 soils with indicator lettuce culture was established. The yield of the various compost mixtures shows that regardless of the soil on which the lettuce is grown, the best yield is obtained with the mixture with equal percentages of vermicompost and biochar. The chemical characteristics of the lettuce plant production show that as the rate if mixtures increases, the basic macronutrients and trace elements increase. The highest values of the N, P and K elements in lettuce are observed at 50% vermicompost: 50% biochar on both soils.

Key words: vermicompost, biochar, pot experiment

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DETERMINATION OF ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE THICKNESS OF THE REED ROOF OF BUILDING FOR LAYING HENS

V. Dimova, D. Georgiev

Abstract: The aim of the recent study is to evaluate the economically feasible thickness of the roof of laying hens building using thermal insulation from reed and different fuel for heating (pellets and Donbass coal). To achieve this, six variants of 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-, 30- and 35-cm-thick roof reed plates have been developed. The price of a reed plate is calculated and includes only the construction work for its workpiece. The construction value of the finished roof (incl. VAT and transport) was obtained by adding to the value of the workpiece the value of the construction works on the site, the labor cost, the performance of the wooden siding, the waterproofing and the slats. The presented methodology determines the annual energy losses per 1 m2 of the roof construction. The cited annual costs for thermal insulation are calculated as the sum of the annual energy costs and depreciation charges. The condensation of water vapor on the inner surface of the reed roof was checked. The results obtained show that the most appropriate thickness of thermal insulation is 25 cm when using fuel pellets and 30 cm when using Donbass coal. All the variants of the reed roof under study meet the hygiene requirements for preventing condensation of water vapor on its inner surface.

Keywords: Reeds roofs of buildings, laying hens, pellets, coals, energy losses, annual costs

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OBSERVATIONS ON CHANGES IN THE PARAMETERS OF THE HOME COMPOSTING PROCESS. PART 1 - PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

Metodi K. Mladenov

Abstract: This article describes research on changes to the physical parameters of the home composting process to determine their impact on the process. Changes in parameter values over 14 weeks were observed. The values of temperature and humidity are essential. The temperature of the compost is a basic indicator of the intensity of the ongoing processes, along with the occurring external changes in mass - structure, color, volume. The humidity, for its part, must fall within certain limits for the process to proceed properly. The pH plays an active role in the vital activity of microorganisms in the compost mass, the optimum values of which significantly favor the process. The results obtained in terms of electrical conductivity are also given. The influence of each of the studied parameters was also established.

Key words: composting; physical parameters;

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