EEEP 3/ 2017


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, Sentinel 1

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Yrsinia nterocolitica

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VII.

Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.

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DEVELOP A DRAFT LEGALLY BINDING MODEL FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF SANCTIONS / PENALTIES WHEN MANAGING THE IMPACT OF NOISE ON LIVING AROUND AIRPORTS

Tonko Petkov

Abstract: National legislation concerning aircraft noise is oriented towards the introduction of standards for aircraft noise, detecting and mapping the distribution of noise around airports, collection of data for aviation through closed (not publicly oriented) monitoring systems and distribution of non-operational information for the observed noise. There framework to create conditions to reduce and even stop the flight of aircraft that do not meet modern standards for aircraft noise. Introduced at airports environmental charges for aircraft noise are effectively connected with the management of noise source, i.e. potentially limiting the use of noisy aircraft. There are no legal possibility for inclusion in the process of noise management of sanctions (or penalties) for operators, committed, motivated by flight safety deviations from optimal in terms of limiting the noise impact, routes to fly over the area (residential environment), time necessary to propose an appropriate legal framework for a comprehensive settlement of the problems with aircraft noise by including customized corporate and personal responsibility for the implementation of the recommendations and requirements for limiting the spread of noise.

Keywords: aircraft noise, noise management, personal responsibility

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ECOTOURISM IN THE NATIONAL PARK CENTRAL BALKAN

Snezhana D. Ivanova, Dessislava I. Markova

Abstract: The Park "Central Balkan" as ecotourism region and opportunities to create business for local entrepreneurs providing services in tourism related to nature park is protected areas. Marketing research is made of the attitude of the tourists and the local population to develop the opportunities for ecotourism in the National Park "Central Balkan". SWOT analysis is made for the development of ecotourism in the National Park "Central Balkan".

Keywords: ecotourism, ecotourism area, zoning, protected areas, biodiversity, ecotourism, itineraries, ecofootpaths

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, Sentinel 1

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Seasonal changes in radar data for objects with different frozen stage, obtained from sentinel 1 data

Maria Dimitrova, Deyan Gochev, Plamen Trenchev

Abstract: This work is focused on the seasonal variation of reflection from objects with varying degrees of frost in astern Greenland on radar satellite data from Sentinel 1 A. It is covered the period from March 1 to November 30, 2016. We investigated four areas - permanently patch of ice, snow area, which in summer is covered with vegetation, area with snow and ice that partially melts during the summer months and open water that freezes in winter. We examined the degree of freezing of each of the selected sections in different days of the year. The results are compared to the images in the optical and infrared range of the satellites Terra and Aqua (spectroradiometer MODIS) for the same period. It has been shown that with the help of radar data can be distinguished places with snow than with ice cover, which could not be done by using optical satellite data. Radar data are particularly suitable for the study of areas of high clouds and very northern (or southern) areas which, due to their geographical features are not visible in the optical range for several months every year. Problem for them is recognition of various objects. In the present work we attempt to recognize objects using values of ​​reflectance in polarizations hh and hv, and attitude hh / hv.

Key words: remote sensing, radars, ice coverage, melting and freezing

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A STUDY OF THE GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON RADAR IMAGES FROM THE CIRCUMPOLAR REGION

Deyan Gotchev, Maria Dimitrova, Roumen Nedkov

Abstract: Data (~1000 images with dual polarization) for an interval from 01.12.20145 till 03.04.2017 are received from the SAR on board the Sentinel- 1A and 1B satellites , part of the ESA Copernicus program. The observed region from the Greenland coastal area includes a permanent non-melting glacier, a couple of fjords with different topography which influences the ocean water freezing processes rate, an ocean region where whole year pack-ice prevails. A well-known fact is that the water phase state influences the electromagnetic properties of the Earths reflective surface, i.e. its radar image. Besides climatic factors, the geomagnetic activity also modulates the former. The experimental results confirm basic theoretical postulates. Multifactor complex dependencies where registered. They could be used in a detailed study of the over-chilled water phase transitions during a geomagnetic storm. This must carefully be considered in attempts to determine by radar images the land surface hydro parameters and its following dynamic, especially when there is lack of in situ meteo-parameters data. Some possible applications are about the radar images reliability during extreme changes in the electromagnetic background, and the inter-play in glacier and ocean pack ice dynamic.

Key words: geomagnetic activity, water phase transitions

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TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC PARAMETERS IN DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER WITH CHLORINE CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

Radoslav Tonev, Galina Dimova - Boikinova, Boyan Borisov

Abstract: The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water is in many cases the cause of epidemics and mass death. The most common methods of disinfection in the world are based on the use of chlorine containing compounds, as they provide residual bactericidal effect in water distribution system. This article is a peer-to-peer comparison of qualitative and quantitative parameters between the various installations, based on the use of active chlorine and chlorine dioxide, offered on the Bulgarian market. An evaluation matrix based on technical specifications of disinfection products and systems has been developed and economic analyzes have been carried out on their annual costs.

Keywords: drinking water disinfection, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, technology, Bulgarian market

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Yrsinia nterocolitica

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Drinking water associated Biofilms of Yrsinia nterocolitica and influence of interspecies interactions for their formation

Zvezdimira Tsvetanova, Hristo Najdenski

Abstract:The report presents a study on the survival conditions of the enteropathogenic strain Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 8081 in drinking water associated biofilms. The effect of interspecies interactions in its binary biofilms formed with three isolated strains of aquatic bacteria was assessed. By excluding one partner strain from the composition of the four-species biofilms the individual effect of each partner strain for incorporation of the Y. enterocolitica cells in the multispecies bacterial biofilms was evaluated.

Key words: biofilm, drinking water, pathogen, interspecies interactions, Yersinia enterocolitica

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ESTABLISHMENT THE INFLUENCE compost mixtures on yield and chemical characteristics of plant production

Svetla Marinova, Elena Zlatareva, Nikolas Katidjotes

Abstract: In our country there are many natural materials that are of interest to human activity associated with the use of their properties. Examined are several natural produkta- vermiculites, fly ash from straw, biomass, wood and pig manure. Based on their quantitative and qualitative characteristics are izgogtveni five compost mixtures. The aim of the study is based on the characterization and assessment of compost mixtures with vegetation experiment to determine their impact on yield and quality of vegetable production.

Is displayed vegatatsionen experience on two soil types tested by culture silage corn. The results establish that all tested compost mixtures are suitable as soil improvers. There has been a gradual increase in yield in all variants compared to the control. Greater participation of manure and wood biomass mixtures positive influence on the yield of corn. The highest yield was observed in part of the compost mixture 2 on leached vertisol in variants with 11% contribution. On alluvial soil is found the highest effect in the part of the compost mixture 3 also in the embodiment 11%. The chemical characterization of plant production poksaezva that

Keywords: vermiculites, ash from straw davvesna biomass, pig manure, growing experience.

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THE WORLD FOREST RESOURCES

Alexander H. Alexandrov

Abstract: The forests are structurally determining for the following macro bioms: north coniferous forests (taiga), deciduous forests of temperate zone, hard-leaved  forests and bushes, seasonal  tropical forests, tropical rainy forests. Forest vegetation however there is in the other bioms as tropical prickly thin-forests, tropical steppes and savannas.On a world scale the process of reducing the forest cover and their resources on the one hand and enlargement of human population - on the other, as well as the demand on food and arable lands are continuously increasing. For 25 year period the forest area reduced from 4128 million ha (1990) to 3999 million ha (2015), i.e. the annual loss of forest area is 5,16 million ha or 0,13%. Forest cover per capita  for this period in the tropics decreased from 0,8 ha to 0,6 ha that is considerable reduction.This world trend however doesn't concern Europe and Asia, where the forest area is growing. Natural forests in the world are 3710 million ha (92.8%) and forest plantations - 289 million ha (7,2%),  while primary forests are in general 1276  million ha but they are being reduced,  however their area is still widest in South and North America.

The world growing stock amounts to 431 billion m3 with a trend to increase in Europe and North America, although growing stock is the biggest in South America - 129 billion m3 and in Europe - 114 billion m3. The annual wood yield amounts to 2997 million m3 with a trend to extend the utilization of forests in the world except in Europe and North America, where wood is obtained from considerably better managed forests. 

Keywords: biom, forest cover, forest plantations, growing stock.

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GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA L.

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS GLYCYRRIZA GLABRA L.

Stnislava Stateva

Abstract. The purpose of this study is to perform a phytochemical analysis of roots in species Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and to establish the relationship between the composition of the extracts and their biological activity. Dried plant material (roots) of the in vitro adapted plants are used for carrying out the gas chromatographic analysis. The polar fraction contains predominantly disaccharides (88.7%), amino acids (5.4%), organic acids (1.7%), free phenolic acids (1.1%), sterols and others. Apolar fraction contains predominantly lipid substances such as free fatty acids (59%), glycerides (30%), hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids and their esters (linolenic, palmitic, steorinova acid) and phytosterols (6.3%).

Keywords: Gas chromatographic analysis, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. glycerin, flavonoids

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