EEEP 2/ 2023

    

      

       .                  3-4

I.

, MELISSA

. , . , . , .                    5-12

.                    13-20

.                    21-28

.                  29-33

II.

-

. , .                 34-41

      III.

.                   42-51

. , . , .                52-58

IV.

(Taxus Baccata L.)

. , .                  59-63

V.

. , . , . , .                  64-72

VI.

(EEEP'2024)

6-9 2024 ., ,                  73-74













 











 


, MELISSA
., ., ., .

THE ATTEMPTS TO CLOSED LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT, THE EARLY CONTEXT OF MELISSA PROJECT
Lasseur C.¹, Kaplan D.², Mergeay M.³, Audas C.¹
1 ESA, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands
2
MATRA Espace, Velizy, France (today retired)
3
SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium, (today retired)

Abstract:
For more than 50 years, space actors are considering quitting the Earth orbit, and to elaborate a human mission to Mars. This type of mission, estimated to be longer than 1000 days, requires only to support human metabolism a high mass of resources not compatible of the launchers. Although, nowadays, the possibility of heavy mass launcher is proposed, a more elegant approach based on a high recycling is proposed. Many projects have been started with this objective. So far almost all had to stop after some years. In this publication the authors are trying to understand some of the reasons, which could be later-on recommendations for project developments and key decisions.
Keywords:
MELiSSA, CELSS, Mars, Circular Economy, Life support system, Space

up


.

MICROBIAL BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE-CONTAINING WASTE IN TERRESTRIAL AND SPACE CONDITIONS
Hristo Najdenski

The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Abstract
: One of the important ecological problems at present is the increasing pollution of the natural environment with cellulose waste. A similar process is also observed in long-term manned space flights: a huge amount of cellulose waste from clothing, hygiene materials, food residues and others accumulates, the processing and utilization of which is a definite scientific challenge. In recent years, many scientists have expanded and deepened their research on this important question, which still remains unresolved both in Earths conditions and during the long-term space flights. Many experiments are carried out on the biodegradation processes of cellulose-containing waste with the use of different populations of microorganisms - bacteria, fungi, etc., as well as with different parameters of the culture medium - composition, temperature, presence of oxygen, pH, etc. The synergistic action of these microbial populations, which have the capacity to degrade and assimilate complex carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) through the synthesis of a number of cellulolytic enzymes, thus restoring the carbon cycle in nature, has been proven. In parallel, research is being conducted in simulated microgravity conditions, focused on their future application for bioconversion and efficient utilization of waste in closed life support systems during long-duration manned space flights. An important condition is that the microorganisms used are not pathogenic, not resistant to antibiotics and do not form biofilms. There is already accumulated experimental data proving that microgravity conditions lead to changes in bacterial gene expression, growth rate, reduced motility, increased virulence, biofilm formation, etc. In this review, the most important results achieved by Bulgarian and foreign teams in this current and promising scientific field are briefly presented.
Keywords
: cellulolytic bacteria, bioconversion, cellulose-containig
waste, life support systems, long-term manned spaceflight

up

.
SUPPORT OF A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT OIL RESERVES IN BULGARIA
Alexander Sadovski
Abstract
: This study is an attempt to support the hypothesis of Prof. Vassil Vuchev for oil reserves in Bulgaria. He argues that there is a geographical zone of underground sources of oil, which begins in Indonesia, passed through the countries of the Middle East, and the Balkan countries Bulgaria, and Romania, and reaches Norway. It can be expected that the territory of our country hides considerable reserves of this natural wealth. The study is performed by GIS techniques, Procrustes analysis and text mining. The results are in favor of Prof. Vuchevs hypothesis.

Keywords:
Oil reserves, Geology, Procrustes analysis, Text mining.

up

.

PREDICTION OF STACK PLUME RISE

P. Jafari Shalkouhi

Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:
Plumes can emit from stacks of power plants, refineries and so on. Plume rise depends on multiple factors including stack exit diameter, exhaust gas velocity, effluent temperature, wind speed, lapse rate etc. Increased stack height because of plume rise plays a significant part in reducing ground level concentrations of air pollutants in downwind direction. Various equations have been proposed for prediction of plume rise such as Holland (1953), Rauch (1962), Briggs (1965) etc. In the present paper a plume rise formula was derived from the Rauch (1962) and Lucas-Moore-Spurr (1963) equations. The results revealed that: 1) the derived equation calculated plume rise more accurately than the Stone and Clarke (1967), Lucas-Moore-Spurr (1963) and Csanady (1961) formulas, 2) the derived formula overestimated plume rise by a factor of approximately two and 3) the coefficient of heat emission rate played a key role in calculation of plume rise.
Keywords:
plume rise, Lucas-Moore-Spurr equation, Rauch formula, derived equation
up
-
. , .  
STUDYING OF THE SATELLITE BASED MODELS FOR LOCAL SPATIO-TEMPORAL MONITORING OF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION IN COSTAL SEA WATER IN BLACK SEA

Nadezhda Drumeva1, Milen Chanev2
1
Institute of Oceanology "Prof. Fridtjof Nansen" - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
2
Space Research and Technology Institute - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Due to climate changes, a number of changes are observed in the world's oceans, such as a change in the amount of thermal energy and water temperature, a change in sea and ocean currents, as well as an increase in acidification. These changes lead to a change in sea water as a habitat for marine ecosystems. Since the beginning of the new millennium, many scientific researches have been focused on monitoring and studying ocean acidification as an important indicator of climate change. The use of satellite remote sensing data to study ocean acidification is gaining wide application and is emerging as a major research method in the near future. It enables continuous near-real-time monitoring, both globally and regionally.
The aim of the present study is to investigate and evaluate the possibilities of applying the models for the study of marine acidification using satellite data for a limited coastal area in the Black Sea region. A review of the publications in various scientific databases related to the major projects of international and governmental organizations such as UNESCO, IALA, EC, NOAA, etc. was made. The study takes into account the gaps in the information on the acidification of the Bulgarian coastal waters by exploring the possibilities for satellite remote monitoring, which would allow the creation of spatio-temporal and prognostic models.
he global and regional coastal studies of seawater acidification with satellite data, as well as the satellite studies of the Black Sea carried out so far, give us hope that in the near future we will be able to successfully apply satellite remote sensing methods in regions such as the Bulgarian coast. However, there are currently no data on quantitative analyzes based on satellite data for the Black Sea, such as the calculations of the parameters of the carbon cycle in sea water. This leads to the impossibility of conducting satellite monitoring of acidification in our region at the present time.

Keywords: ocean acidification, pH, TA, pCO2, DIC, satellite remote sensing, SSS, SST, Black sea
up


.
ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF COLLOIDAL NANOSILVER
Teodora P. Popova

University of Forestry, Sofia,
Bulgaria

Abstract.
The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show high antimicrobial activity, confirmed by a number of researchers. Due to the widespread occurrence of microbial strains with multiple resistance to antibiotics, the possibilities for the diverse practical application of AgNPs have become the subject of research nowadays. They have numerous potential biomedical applications due to the antimicrobial activity even against polyresistant strains combined with low cytotoxicity. In many cases, this activity is enhanced when they are combined with antibiotics, plant extracts and other substances. However, serious irreversible adverse health effects have been identified. Elucidation of their exact mechanisms of action in the cells not only of microorganisms but also of mammals is important in connection with the possibilities for their efficient and safe application. That is why the subject of this article are the studies of the biological activity and possibilities for practical application of AgNPs.
Keywords:
colloidal nanosilver AgNPs, antimicrobial activity

up

. , . , .

SOME EXPERIMENTS WITH ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVATED WATER

Nikolay Ivanov, Vladimir Ivanov, Georgi Gluhchev

Institute of Information and Communication Technologies Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Abstract: Experiments on the physical properties of the Electrochemically Activated water carried out in the last few years are present. During the electrolysis of tap water with a semipermeable membrane two fractions catholyte and anolyte are obtained with different values of the physical and chemical parameters. Power hydrogen and oxidation-reduction potential have been investigated by many researchers, but without precise evaluation of their changes at different intervals of time. Here, tables for the values of these parameters are present. New results, difficult to explain, are obtained in the following aspects: 1) Double activation with reversed electrodes; 2) Electroosmosis at different types of water, including tap water, distilled and de-ionized ones, and 3) Evaluation of the quantity of heavy metals in the water before and after activation. Since no description of the potential of the electrical field, produced by the electrodes of the electrolyzer, was found in the literature, measurement of the field between and around the electrodes in case of presence and absence of membrane have been carried out.

The results could be of interest to the researchers trying to understand some of the anomalous properties of the electrolyzed water.

Keywords: Electrochemical activation (ECA), electrolyzer, catholyte, anolyte, electroosmosis, Power Hydrogen (pH), Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), semipermeable membrane.

up
(TAXUS BACCATA L.)
  . , .

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION AND REINTRODUCTION OF COMMON YEW (TAXUS BACCATA L.) IN ITS NATURAL HABITATS IN STRANDZHA AND VITOSHA MOUNTAINS
Slavcho Savev, Nasko Iliev
University of forestry, Sofia, Bulgaria

Abstract
. Ex situ propagation and reintroduction in the wild could be a promising approach in the conservation of rare species, including the Common yew. Its conventional vegetative propagation by rooting of cuttings do not provide satisfying results since a major factor remains the stage of development of the donor plant. Cuttings from stage-young individuals taken from Maglizh site formed more root primordia, with successful rooting of 44%. Individuals in the reproductive stage of their development form root primordia, but root development follows in 8 to 20 % of cuttings, while the other cuttings necrotize. The attempt to reintroduce Taxus baccata revealed that young plants hardly develop in the lower part of the steep slopes of thinned forest communities, forming the natural habitat of the mixed scree forests, on steep slopes and ravines, a xerophytic variant of the Tilio-Acerion alliance. Young Yew plants are sensitive to summer droughts and to the allelopathic effect of their neighboring Rhododendron ponticum shrubs, which reduces the success of their reintroduction. A limiting factor is also the thick layer of leaf litter and shading by beech trees in the lower part of the slopes, as well as damage by wild herbivores, mainly roe deer and rabbits. Young saplings require good soil aeration, combined with sufficient moisture during the summer drought period and intensive cultivation, including lightening under beech shading during the initial three-year period after planting.
Keywords:
common yew, habitats, nature parks

up


. , . , . , .

IMPACT OF REPLACEMENT COAL AND FOSSIL ENERGY BY NUCLEAR ENERGY ON GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION
Mohamed Abdelaziz1,
Hesham Elkhatib2, Abdelfatah Abdelmaksoud2, Mohamed Essawy2
1
Department of Nuclear Safety Research and Radiological Emergencies, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority
2
Nuclear Reactors Department, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority
Abstract
. Climate change has become one of the important matters that worry humanity worldwide, until local seminars and international conferences have been held for it at the highest levels, such as the level of heads of state. What is worrying about climate change is the increase in the average global temperature until it soon reaches the age of mankind, which has reached 1.5 degrees Celsius until the year 2033 and 2 degrees Celsius until the year 2059, as an inevitable result of the increase in carbon emissions resulting from electricity generation, industry and vehicle exhaust, which were estimated at about 1000 gigabytes of tons until the year 2060, in which the production of electrical energy contributes by more than 50%. On the other hand, the unjust encroachment on forests, this is the lung of the world. Since electric power generation is responsible for more than half of the global emissions of carbon gases, this research aims to study the carbon emissions resulting from electric power generation with the scenarios of Unfinished Symphony, Modern Jazz and Hard Rock, and trying to reduce the carbon emissions resulting from electric power generation by replacing electricity generation with nuclear energy as an alternative to coal all types, as well as petroleum (fossil fuels), with the stability of the use of natural gas and new and renewable energies according to previous scenarios until the year 2060. The result was, according to the Unfinished Symphony scenario, emissions were about (591.9) Giga tons. In contrast, when using nuclear energy as an alternative, the contribution of electricity production by 65% cancels out the improvement in the amount of carbon emissions by 75.1%, with a carbon dioxide productivity of 146.8 Giga tons. According to the Jazz scenario, emissions were about (632.1) Giga tons. In contrast, when using nuclear energy as an alternative, the contribution of electricity production is 65%, which cancels out the improvement in the amount of carbon emissions by 75.2%, with a carbon dioxide productivity of 156.8 Giga tons. According to the Hard Rock scenario, emissions were about (643.3) Giga tons. In contrast, when using nuclear energy as an alternative, the contribution of electricity production is 65%, which cancels out the improvement in the amount of carbon emissions by 74.87%, with a production of carbon dioxide that amounted to 161.6 Giga tons.
Keywords:
Climate change CO2 emission Electric demand scenario Nuclear energy contribution.

up