EEEP 2/2014

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I.

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                 13-21

1-D

                      22-28

II.

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                29-40

III.

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IV.

XRF TXRF

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V.

                         55-60

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                           61-67

VI.

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,                         68-73

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VII.

-                        78






















ECOLOGICAL CHARGE OF INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS IN BULGARIA

Tonko Petkov

Abstract: Since 2011 Civil aviation act has been included in the airport charge Charge for noise (an ecological charge). The regulation of the charges for public and for aeronautical uses of the airports in Bulgaria determines the size of charges for Bulgarian international airports. For Sofia airport in the accordance of Directive (EC) 12/2009 a methodology was approved for determination of airport charges, which has to be applied by the biggest number of passenger carriages at the Bulgarian territory.

This manuscript analyses the absence of uniform approach for determination of the ecological charge for an individual airport. Some suggestions to solve these problems are presented.

Key words: airport charges, aviation noise, normative order

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SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF EARTHQUAKES IN BULGARIA AND NEIGHBORING AREAS

Alexander N. Sadovski

Abstract: Statistical methods including Quadrat analysis, Cluster analysis, Descriptive statistics and Geographic Information Systems are used to study spatial distribution and to summarize data about earthquakes in Bulgaria and neighboring areas. Detection of areas with similar pattern of earthquakes occurrence is of interest for the Government and for general public. Seismic risk for NPP "Belene" is discussed.

Key words: Earthquakes, Spatial analysis, Statistical methods, Geographic Information Systems, NPP "Belene".

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1-D

COMPARISON OF TWO 1-D GEOELECTRIC PROGRAMS FOR GROUNDWATER INVESTIGATION

Dana Mawlood

Abstract.  Two computer-programs that calculate layer thicknesses and resistivities from Schlumberger soundings are compared. The programs may or may not approach to the same results depending on the starting conditions and on the possible different solutions according to the principle of equivalence. The quality of the results depends on the user and the quality of his geological capacity. The main difference between the programs found to be the handling.

Keywords. Groundwater, DC-Geoelectrics, Computer-program

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APPROACHES FOR MODELING OF PROTON-EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

Ludmil Stoyanov

Abstract: The fuel cells are a new energy source and its application fields increase last years. Thus the fuel cell modeling is an important element in the studies of different researchers. The model choice depends on the study aim. The appropriate model can be chosen after a sufficient knowledge on different models. This paper presents different approaches for modeling of fuel cells with proton-exchange membrane. This fuel cell technology is chosen after a review of different types fuel cells, because of its advantages as high energy density and efficiency. Two approaches are possible for the fuel cell modeling at separate parts and as a whole object. The first approach is presented briefly while the second is discussed in details. Different nonlinear and linear models are shown and their advantages and disadvantages are presented.

Keywords: modeling of fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cell

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white-rot basidiomycetes - novel promising producers of cellulases

Aza Kobakhidze, Eka Metreveli, Dencho Denchev, Vladimir Elisashvili

Abstract: In this study, nine strains of wood-rotting basidiomycetes strains have been for the first time evaluated for their potential to produce cellulases and xylanase. In submerged cultivation in avicel-contained medium the endoglucanase activity varied from 0.2 U ml-1 to 39.6 U ml-1 while the xylanase activity varied from 0.2 U ml-1 to 93.0 U ml-1 depending on fungus species. Among the fungi tested Pycnoporus coccineus and Irpex lacteus secreted extremely high CMCase, xylanase, and FP activities, 39.6 and 37.8 U ml-1, 80 and 93 U ml-1, 4.89 and 4.51 U ml-1, respectively. Elevation of avicel concentration from 1% to 2-3% in cultivation of P. coccineus caused 3-fold increase of endoglucanase activity and 2-fold increase of xylanase and FP activities while no increase of I. lacteus enzyme activity was observed in gradual elevation of cellulose concentration from 1 to 4%.

Keywords: basidiomycetes, cellulase, xylanase, lignocellulosic materials, fermentation

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XRF TXRF

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POSSIBILITIES FOR ANALYSIS OF WASTE WOOD ASH SAMPLES BY MEANS OF XRF AND TXRF TECHNIQUES A PRELIMINARY DATA

Metodi Mladenov, Galia Gentcheva

Abstract: The element composition determination of different types of wastes is very important for taking of decision for their further treatments. The accuracy of results helps for making of choice for specific method of analysis of the respectively waste. In the current article are showed obtained preliminary results from analysis of biomass ashes through wave dispersive (WD-XRF) and total (TXRF) X-ray fluorescence analysis. The obtained results from these two methods are compared with results from flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS).

Keywords: XRF (X-ray fluorescence), WD-XRF (wave dispersive X-ray fluorescence), TXRF (total X-ray fluorescence), biomass ash, wastes, FAAS (flame atomic absorption spectroscopy).

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CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME CLIMATIC ELEMENTS AND COMPOSITION OF DENDROCOENOSIS ON CATCHMENT OF THE VLADAISKA RIVER IN NATURAL PARK VITOSHA

Nadezhda Stoyanova

Abstract: The present article examined the characteristic of some climatic elements: precipitations and air temperature. The meteorological data have been obtained from different altitude 520 m and 2295 m (NIMH; NSI). The studies on the tree species in the region on the catchment of river Vladaiska, as region in the areal of Natural park Vitosha are extended. The results from the tree species have revealed dominance of Quercus sp., Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies (L.) Karst., Pinus sylvestris L., Abies alba Mill., Pinus peuce Gris. Data on the species composition and distribution of forest ecosystems are discussed.

Key words: forests, ecology, precipitations, temperature, protection natural territory

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CHANGES IN MOUNTAIN MEADOW SOILS OF HIGH MOUNTAIN FOREST BELT AFTER FIRE

Simeon Bogdanov

Abstract. The paper presents results from investigation on changes in soils influenced by forest fire around the timberline. Mountain Meadow soils (Modic Cambisols, FAO) have been investigated. The sample plots are set up in burned area and unburned control once. They are correspondingly situated in the High Mountain forest belt (above 1800 m altitude) of Vitosha Mountain. Soil samples have been taken immediately after the fire and one year later in order to investigate the dynamics of the changes. The contents of total carbon, total nitrogen and soluble forms of magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium have been determined. The changes in pH have been established.   

Key words: forest fire, forest soils, total carbon, total nitrogen, nutrient elements, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, pH.

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ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVATED WATER

Georgi Gluhchev and Nikolay Ivanov

Abstract. The properties of the electrochemically activated (ECA) water have attracted the attention of scientists since the middle of the last century. In this paper the principle of ECA process and some properties of the obtained anolyte and catholyte are described. Results from experiments for the evaluation of the relationship between the degree of activation and duration of the process are shown. Also, the preservation of pH in days was investigated. Remarcable influence of ECA water on some bacteria and human blood system has been observed.

Keywords: Activated water, anolyte, catholyte, pH, oxidation-reduction potential

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WHAT IS MORE IMPORTANT FOR SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS: RATING OR DISCOVERIES?

K. Lahtchev

Abstract. In this paper various viewers concerning politics followed by the editorial councils of scientific journals are reported.  It is pointed that over-exaltation the role of  impact factors lead to appearance of various negative phenomena like as delay of publications, differentiation of journals as high and ordinary etc. The position of Nobel Prize laureate Rendy Shekman against high rating journals as well as  the future politics of our journal are discussed.


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