EEEP 2/2011

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STRATEGIC NOISE MAPPING FOR SOFIA AGLOMERATION
Boris Mihaylov, Milcho Georgiev, Antonia Gadeleva

Abstract. The recent paper presents in brief the realized from GISSofia Ltd and Spectri Ltd project for crating Strategic Noise Maps for Sofia Aglomeration (approved  in 2010). Bellow are cited the used methodology and instrumentation. In brief are shown the overall final results, and the main conclusions out of them.
Keywords: noise, noise map
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ECOHYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS N THE RIVER VACHA BASIN, LIMITED TO TZANKOV KAMAK DAM, USING GIS ON THE BASE OF SATELLITE, GPS AND GROUND DATA

Silvia Kirilova, Roumen Nedkov, Stefan Modev

Abstract: In the paper the results from ecohydrological analysis conducted on the base of contemporary geoinformation technology are presented. The study and the analysis are made in GIS platform using satellite, GPS and ground data. Using GIS to solve the tasks of engineering hydrology gives the possibility/opportunity  for a quick and easy access to data acquisition and analysis  in space  to be used. Thus, the influence of the subjective factor on the data and analysis reliability and precision is minimized.

Orohydrographical characteristics of the researched basin are the information base which together with run-off characteristics allow generalization and derivation of different regional empirical formulas. These empirical formulas are obtained under the analysis and estimations when defining the necessary parameters for the design of hydrotechnical facilities. The received empirical formulas are objective quantity ecological estimitation for further exploitation of hydrotechnical facilities.

Key words: Geographic Information System (GIS), GPS, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), river system, run-off

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MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF PHENOL AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS (REVIEW)

Zlatka Alexieva, Maria Gerginova, Husein Yemendzhiev

Abstract: Microorganisms are an important participant in the natural chemical cycles, but are also useful in the breakdown of chemical compounds produced by human activity. In the practice of cleaning the environment with microorganisms, most approved is their use in treatment plants for degradation of urban, agricultural or industrial waste. In the last 30-40 years in the environment fall within various highly toxic chemicals. Widespread application of physico-chemical methods of destruction are generally expensive and often lead to additional air pollution. With the development of biotechnology, it is clear that disposal of toxic pollutants by organic synthetic methods is more cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Phenol and its derivatives are known as highly toxic and widespread pollutants. The problem of effective removal from the environment is directly related to protecting the environment and human health.

Key words: phenol, biodegradation, bacteria, yeast, fungi, mathematical modeling

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EFFECT OF RHAMNOLIPID BIOSURFACTANT ON CELL SURFACE PROPERTIES OF BACTERIAL STRAINS GROWN ON N-HEXADECANE

Tatyana Avramova, Maya Atanasova, Anna Sotirova, Danka Galabova

Abstract. Effect of biosurfactant rhamnolipid Ps-17, external to the studied ecosystem, on microbial cell growth, permeability and hydrophobicity of bacterial strains, members of a microbial consortium, isolated from lubricant-polluted water was studied. Bacterial strains were representatives of three genera, Enterococcus; Staphylococcus; Alcaligenes and were selected according to their ability to grow on n-hexadecane and to produce biosurfactant. It was shown that biosurfactant-rhamnolipid Ps-17 supported the growth of bacterial isolates on hexadecane in different degree. The results revealed that biosurfactant Ps-17 at used concentrations modified cell hydrophobicity and increased cell permeability of Gram (+) and Gram (-) isolates. Evaluation of the relationship between changes in cell surface permeability and hydrophobicity and the capability of the tested strains to utilize the hydrophobic carbon substrate n-hexadecane was made as well. The results obtained were discussed in attempt to elucidate the relationships between the members of the consortium and to evaluate the role of biosurfactants, self-produced or exogenous, in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites.

Keywords: rhamnolipid; cell surface properties; n- hexadecane; Enterococcus; Staphylococcus; Alcaligenes

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MODELING OF SHOCK LOADING WITH PCP-XENOBIOTIC DURING REAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

Yana Topalova, Raycho Dimkov, Ivailo Ivanov, Dimitar Kozuharov


Abstract.
The twelve hour shock loading with PCP (20 mg/l) of modelled process of wastewater treatment in laboratory equipment, similar to the real water treatment in Sofia municipal wastewater treatment plant had been realized. A broad package of indicators (COD, Absorbed PCP, Adsorbed PCP, Degraded PCP, efficiency of PCP elimination) had been analysed. As a consequence of the shock loading the wastewater treatment process was strongly destroyed. The logical consequence was deterioration of quality of the effluent for period 45 hour. This deterioration was connected with the increase of COD of the effluent, leakage of xenobiotic in the water receiver, deterioration of the microbiological indicators of the water by means of enrichment of large amount of homogenic cells. Elimination of the xenobiotic was only 60% due to the accumulation in the activated sludge and leakage in the water receiver. The real biodegradation was only 10%.  All this confirmed the sharp necessity of protection of biobasins from accidental loading by toxic pollutants by means of specialized detoxicated modules in the wastewater treatment plants.
Key words:
modeling, real water treatment, pentachlorophenol, biodegradation

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SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

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INVESTIGATIONS AND SELECTION OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS FOR BIO-ETHANOL MANUFACTURING

Silvia Mileva, Kantcho Lahtchev

Abstract. Eight strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested for their ability to produce ethanol under the stress conditions of elevated temperature of 370C and high amounts of glucose. Several criteria (dynamics of released CO2, amounts of ethanol generated, cell growth, amounts of residual sugars and productivity) were used for estimation of the strain performance.  The results obtained revealed a group of four strains (∑1278b, RD-01, 4 27) that are resistant to the fermentation conditions employed and are perspective for further works aiming genetic improvement of their abilities.

Key words: bioethanol, alcohol fermentation, yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

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TISSUE-BASED BIOSENSOR WITH INHIBITION FOR DETERMINATION OF ALDICARB

Antonia Pandelova, Nikolay Stoyanov, Tzvetomira Romanska

Abstract: In the present work biosensor system for determination of aldicarb is described. The biosensor transducer used as biological material plant tissue of potato Solanum tuberosum. The principle of measurements is based on inhibition of enzyme polyphenol oxidase by carbamatic acid type pesticide aldikarb. As basic substrate catechol is used.  The experimental researches are carried out in three buffer solutions distiller water, 0.025M phosphate buffer and 0.1M phosphate buffer. The best linear relationship between concentration of inhibitor and output signal is observed in 0.025M phosphate buffer. The experimental results of analytical characteristic of biosensor with different enzyme loading are given.

Key words: biosensor, potato tissue, aldicarb, inhibition
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CLIMATICAL CONDITIONS AND VEGETATION SUCCESSIONS IN FORESTS OF PARANGALITZA RESERVE IN RILA Mts

Nadezhda Stoyanova

Abstract. In the paper have been analyzed original data for the regeneration proceses in the Parangalitza reserve in Rila mountain and a climate data. The major part of the vegetation is primary vegetation and it is represented mainly by formation of Picea abies (L.) Karsten and formation of Abies alba Mill.; formation of Pinus silvestris L.and formation of Fagus sylvatica L. have lower frequency of occurrence. There are a different-aged regeneration structures of undergrowth established. The structure and species composition of undergrowth was determined in Picea abies ecosystems with some admixture of Abies alba and Fagus silvatica, and also in Pinus sylvestris ecosystems with some admixture of Picea abies. Based on the analysed results, a trend of vegetation succession was established.

Key words: Forest ecosystems, Climate, Natural regeneration, Picea abies (L.) Karst., Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Rila mountain.

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