EEEP 2/2010

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2005-2009 .

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300

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ACOUSTICAL PROBLEMS OF OPEN PUBLIC CAR PARKS

A
. Kovachev, N. Nikolov

Abstract
. Made is a research of acoustic problems in the design of open public car parks in the big cities of Bulgaria. Analyzed are the standards. A stochastic model is developed for determining the noise characteristics of car parks with different capacity and usage structure. Proposed are methodology and computer programs to determine the required width of health protection zone.
Keywords: open car parks, noise level, health protection zone
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SYNCHRONIZED HYDROGEOLOGICAL Methods FOR UNDERGROUND WATERS DETECTION
S. Velkoski

Abstract: The Republic of Macedonia is located in a seismic active region. The water supply to the city of Skopje is trough the regional water supply system Rasce. Changes in the flow of waters in the geological structures depend on the geological cracking formed during geodynamic activity. In same cases, earthquakes can disrupt the geological structure and with them, those containing underground waters. Up to now in the Republic of Macedonia, no noticeable differences have been observed in the flow of drinkable underground waters. There have, however, been changes in capacity and temperature of thermal waters. Also, some minor changes have been observed in small surface flowing waters. These phenomena may (or may not) occur especially in epicentral locations.

It is well known that during seismic activity, further to the effects on the flow of underground waters and other geo-anomalies, there is an appearance of a reinforced geomagnetic field. Scientific studies of the damaging effects and protection thereof have been made by IGAPE - Skopje. Research of the flow of underground waters is carried out using modern methods such as: - satellite data; - surface methods. Combinations of these methods enable to obtain greater precision, as well as rapid and economically effective. Key words: risky hydro-geological areas

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2005-2009
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ECOMONITORING OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF DIMITROVGRAD AREA ON THE BASIS OF SATELLITE AND GROUND DATA FOR 2005-2009 YEARS
P. Stoyanova, M. Dimitrova, R. Nedkov , D. Panayotova, V. Apostolova, M. Zaharinova, I. Ivanova
Abstract. The purpose of the study is tracking the dynamics of atmospheric pollution over the town of Dimitrovgrad municipality for the period July 2005 - May 2009 based on satellite and terrestrial data. To achieve the objective satellite data suitable for investigation of atmospheric pollution in the area  are selected, processed and analyzed Based on visual interpretation a degree of contamination of the atmosphere and scale of its distribution is assessed.A comparative analysis of the results obtained from satellite and terrestrial data available from the Ministry of Environment and Water (MEW) for part of the period is produced.

Key words: atmospheric pollution, satellite and ground data

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STATE AND USING OF NATURAL FERTILIZER IN BULGARIA

. Ivanova
Abstract: Two of the most important documents of the European water politic Directives for urban waste-water treatment and for nitrates. The success of these directives depends on the commitment of the member-states to definite their sensitive and vulnerable zones. In realization of the directives are definite nitrate vulnerable zones, and principles of Good agricultural and environmental practices and Program for reduction and eradication of nitrate pollution from agricultural sources in vulnerable zones are confirmed.

Keywords: natural fertilizer, European water policy, Nitrate directive, Good agricultural and environmental practices, nitrate vulnerable zones

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ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL BIODEGRADATION OF CELLULOSIC MATERIAL AT TWO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES
V. Hubenov, V. Dencheva, P. Pavlov, Hr. Georgieva, D. Denchev

Abstract: Experiments for microbial anaerobic digestion of cellulose (filter paper) in mesophilic (34oC) and thermophilic (55 oC) conditions were provided. The metabolic products received in the first phase of the anaerobic degradation process were organic acids, oligosaccharides and presumably hydrogen, all of them transformed afterwards to methane. Independently of the temperature conditions, specific cellulolytic microbial groups, predominating in the thermophilic conditions only, were found in the cultural liquid. The process at the higher temperature was with better technological indexes as well as with higher biogas yields and impossibility of proteolytic microorganism development.

Key words: Mesophilic, thermophilic anaerobic process, cellulose, biodegradation cellulolytic bacteria.

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ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ORGANIC WASTES AND ITS POSSIBLE USE FOR PILOTED SPACECRAFT FLIGHTS
I. Simeonov, V. Ilyin, D. Denchev, P. Angelov, L. Starkova

Abstract: In this paper a possibility of applying anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during piloted spacecraft flights is discussed. In connection with the future piloted space missions to Mars, the problem of utilizing the wastes accumulated on board the spacecraft becomes especially acute. Astronauts use for hygiene needs chiefly napkins and towels on cellulose basis, forming the greater part of the wastes. Another potential part of the wastes represent the uneatable residues of plants grown on board that are degradable easier. For the purpose, microorganisms of the genus Clostridium, capable of functioning in aerobic as well as in anaerobic conditions can be used. The anaerobic digestion is preferable, since the oxygen necessary for the crew is not consumed. The anaerobic processes can be realized by bacteria developing at mesophilic (37C) or thermophilic conditions (55C).

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, cellulose containing wastes, piloted spacecraft flights, microgravity conditions

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INTEGRATED BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM RAW STARCH AND HEAVY METALS REMOVING FROM WASTEWATER

K. Tsekova, V. Dencheva, K. Petrov

Abstract: Strains of Rhizopus fungi were investigated for lactic acid production from raw starch. R. arrhizus and R. oryzae showed higher biochemical activity for starch conversion to lactic acid and ethanol while R. delemar produced more fungal biomass as a by-product. Growth conditions: 35 g/L starch, pH 6 and 30C were favorable for both starch saccharification and valuable products formation, resulting in lactic acid yield of 0.71 g/g starch associated with 0.36 g/g ethanol and 0.73 g/g fungal biomass with R. arrhizus as a producer. The ability of waste mycelia to remove Cu, Co, Mn, Ni and Zn ions from single as well as mixed solutions was assessed. The results obtained showed that the waste fungal biomasses may be successfully used as biosorbents for treatment of metal-polluted industrial wastewaters.

Keywords: Rhizopus sp., raw starch, lactic acid, ethanol, heavy metals, biosorbtion
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CLIMATE CHANGES AND ECOLOGICAL RISK FOR STATUS OF FORESTS IN THE LOWER FOREST VEGETATION BELT
N. Stoyanova, E. Popov, A. Delkov, D. Stoyanov

Abstract: Forest ecosystems, as biological systems, have certain stability towards climate changes but at significant disturbances they could modify or die.  The present study characterizes climate changes in the period 1952 2007 for lower forest vegetation belt of South-west Bulgaria. The dynamics of air temperature and precipitation amounts have been followed and the change of drought index after de Martonne has been determined. With the help of ecological climatogrammes after Walter, the drought periods and their durability have been determined for both objects of study (at altitudes 520 and 206 m a.s.l., respectively), as well as drought periods and their durability in the object at lower altitude.  The analysed climatic data are indicative for the presence of ecological risk for the status of forest vegetation in studied regions. It is stressed on complicated character of climate changes, as well as on the necessity of permanent monitoring, analysis and interpretation of both climate changes and their impact on forest tree vegetation.

Key words: ecology, climate, forest ecosystems, precipitation, drought periods

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300
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APLAING of forest skyline Koller K 300 in VITOSHA AND OGRAzhEN MOUTAIN FELLING AREAs
D. Dimitrov

Absract: The aim of the present investigation was to compare the work time and the productivity of forest skyline Koller 300 in different broadleaved and coniferous forests.  There were  investigated three road-track situated in Vitosha and Ograjden mountain. The time for carried out of one full road-bed was divided into ten work phases. It was established that independently by the type of the loading wood the most time was consumed for operation ,,Moving of loaded carriage to landing site - at trace 1 53,5 %, t trace 2 51,3% and at trace 3-21,0%. In a result of this investigation it was established that the productivity of this type of skyline in deciduous forests was 3,22 m3/ha and in coniferous forest it was 5,91 m3/ha. It can be pointed that the productivity of  Koller 300 was better in the coniferous forest.

Key words: Koller K 300, forest skyline, productivity, load

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