EEEP 1/2013

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GPS

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(Pinus Silvestris l.)

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Sorbus Domestica l.

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GPS

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ECOMONITORING INVESTIGATION OF LAND COVER OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF KARDZHALI, USING AEROSPACE AND GPS DATA

R. Nedkov, I. Ivanova, D. Panayotova, M. Dimitrova, M. Zaharinova

Abstract: In this paper  a land cover and agro-climatic characteristics is done in the land of the municipality of Kardzhali. Kardzhali municipality comprises of 117 settlements covered in 45 municipalities. A characteristic of agro-climatic conditions is done in the region relief, agro-climatic resources, rainfall, temperature conditions during the vegetation period and soil types. For a description of the types of land cover are used a data from CORINE Land Cover. Forests and agricultural areas are the main land cover classes in the region. The aim of this paper is to assess the terrain and its ability to be used in agricultural activities.

Key words: land cover, satellite and GPS data, agro-climatic characteristics

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ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: AN EMERGING PROBLEM

Lubomira Nikolaeva-Glomb

Abstract. Millions of doses of human and veterinary medicines are taken daily to fight cancer, pain, depression, infections, parasites, etc. and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) enter the environment. Traces of them, typically at levels in the nanograms, have been reported in wastewater, surface and ground waters, and, to a lesser extent, soils and drinking water. Many examples already exist indicating the harmful influence of released APIs in the environment. Although currently it is believed that the likelihood of damage to human health is virtually zero, the emergence of ecological imbalance in certain areas is well documented. A framework for risk assessment when new medicines are to be registered already exists based on a hierarchical (phased) approach with each tier being more refined. However, the benefit to the patient has a comparative advantage over environmental risks and appropriate and increased safety measures are recommended.

Key words: active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), emerging pollutants, environmental side effects

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ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN TOWN OF KYUSTENDIL

. Sotirov, R. Vezenkova, N.. Pishtalov, S. Savova, L. Stanchev, R. Rasulski 19-28


Abstrac
t. Present investigation gives information about some parameters of the environment in town of Kyustendil, Bulgaria. The parameters are chosen on the basis of the main purpose of the study receiving of information for the condition of water resources, precipitations, soils, radiation background, and air in the town and making decisions and conclusions.

Measurements of the rainfall, soil, water, and radiation were implemented every day during 2 years period and seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of the river of Banshtitsa.

It was chosen the method of measurement in-situ, on the terrain through direct sampling grab samples, because the advantage of the method is high authenticity, correctness and accuracy of the investigations. Using of digital instruments is preferred, because their possibilities for quick, comfortable and precise measurements of the studied parameters.
There is not reference or public data for scientific or practical environmental studies of the region. Investigations were done only for regions near to the town in the mining area of Osogovo Mountain. Published data for environmental monitoring of urban area of town Kyustendil, Bulgaria is published only by the author.

Key words: environmental monitoring, soil, air, water

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EUROPEAN EMISSION TRADING SCHEME PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

Atanas Kaymaktchiev

Abstract. EU ETS (European Emission Trading Scheme) was created by the EC (European Commission) and actually started January 2005. Its essence, action mechanisms and application in the European countries and Bulgaria during phases I and II of Kyoto Protocol were discussed. The European market of CO2-quotas during the period 2008-2012 was overwied generally according this Scheme.  Prognoses and action tendencies of  EU ETS and the market development during this period were presented. The projects realized in Bulgaria as a result of Kyoto Protocol were briefly described.

Key words: emission, scheme, quota, carbon dioxide

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INTENSIFICATION OF Bioelectricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells

Tatyana Voeikova, Lidia Emelyanova, Ludmila Novikova, Nadezshda Mordkovich,  Rustem Shakulov, Konstantin Sidoruk, Igor Smirnov, Pavel Soldatov, Aleksey Tyurin-Kuz'min, Tatyana Smolenskaya, Vladimir Debabov, Vyacheslav Ilyin

Abstract: The present investigation has demonstrated that electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFC) can be enhanced by means of intensification of oxidation-reduction processes in genetically modified electrogenic bacteria. Mutants FRS1 and FRB1of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 exhibited an increased reducing activity and higher rates of lactate utilization were obtained after processing of a strain of the mutagen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and selection on resistance to antibiotic fosfomycin. The reducing activity of these mutants was identified with respect to the rate of discoloration of methylene blue (MB), a dye that served as an electron transfer mediator. A correlation was shown between the rates of metabolism of oxidized substrates and the rate of discoloration of MB. The capability of S. oneidensis MR-1 mutants to generate bioelectricity was measured in MFC of different types. It was shown that the rate of MB discoloration was in direct correlation with the level of voltage in MFC of the above strains.  In the case when the mutants were used, the parameter in MFC proved to be 30-40% greater than in the case of the parent strain.

Keywords: Electrogenic bacteria, bioelectricity, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, mutants, microbial fuel cells

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MICROBIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN BIOETHANOL FACILITIES

Kantcho Lahtchev

Abstract. Industrial alcohol fermentations occur in nonsterile conditions and as a consequence in culture media appeared and developed special kind of ecosystems composed from three large groups of microorganisms: starter strains of distillery yeasts, a lot of lactic acid bacteria and so called wild yeasts. During fermentation processes dynamic alternation between quantitative ratios of these microorganisms are observed. On the other hand inside of such ecosystems interspecies relations of neutralism, competition and/or antagonism regularly proceeds and affect the efficiency of fermentation process and sometimes caused shut down of industrial manufacturing for cleaning. In this review the sources of contaminations as well as ways by which they penetrate into fermenors are described. The mechanisms of inhibition of ethanol fermentations by lactic acid bacteria and wild yeast are discussed with the emphasis on methods used to control such undesired microflora.

Key words: alcohol fermentation, distillery yeast, lactic acid bacteria, wild yeasts

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POWER BALANCING IN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM WITH CONSIDERABLE WIND POWER PENETRATION

Maria Kaneva, Zdravko Popov, Dimo Stoilov

Abstract: The balance between electric power generation and load is crucial for the security and quality of electricity supply across the Electric Power System (EPS). It is an important task executed on minute-to-minute base by the system operator. Penetration of renewable energy sources with intermittent generated power complicates further this difficult task - this paper studies the influence of wind generators. A model of a wind park is developed, typical disturbances are applied, and the obtained results are analyzed. Useful conclusions concerning the power system operation and the balancing market functioning are drawn.

Keywords: electric power system, wind power, active power balance 

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(PINUS SILVESTRIS L.)

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VARIABILITY OF HIGH MOUNTAIN SCOTS PINE (PINUS SILVESTRIS L.) ON NORTHEASTERN SLOPES OF RILA MOUNTAIN
Geno Peev, Alexander Alexandrov

Abstract One of the mst important coniferous species in Bulgaria is Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.) distributed mainly in the Rhodope mountains, Rila Mt. and Pirin Mt. usually from 1000 m to 2000 m above sea level. Its variability was investigated at high mountain parts on northeastern slopes of Rila Mt. The morphological and ecological traits of Scots pine at the marginal population were established.

Key Words: variability, Pinus silvestris, Rila Mt.

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SORBUS DOMESTICA L.

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SORBUS DOMESTICA L. A VALUABLE TREE SPECIES IN BULGARIAN FORESTS

Georgi P. Georgiev

Abstract: Service tree (Sorbus domestica L.) is a tree species of  importance for the biodiversity in Bulgarian forests. Its share in stands composition in the Eastern Balkan Range is relatively higher compared with that of the other mountains. The optimum of species distribution in the investigated region, as well as its ecological requirements, and phenotypic characteristics of sample trees were determined. Individuals with the highest quality (plus trees) are selected and recommended for collecting of reproductive materials.

Key words: Sorbus domestica L., ecological requirements, biodiversity

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