EEEP 4/ 2017

CONTENTS


Editor's comment

H. Najdenski                           3-4

I. MAN AND BIOSPHERE

Indicators for environmental protection regarding transport

M. Evtimova                        5-10

Marketing study on the degree of conservation of the natural and cultural heritage in the Central Balkan national park

S. Ivanova, D. Markova                         11-15

Total β-activity in oriental tobacco grown under stationary non-fertilizing conditions

A. Georgieva, S. Kirkova                           16-19

II. SPACE TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

Registration of sand storms, directed to Bulgaria using data from GOME-2, OMI and MODIS for the period of 2004 -2017

M.Dimitrova, P. Trenchev, D. Gochev                      20-24

The use of radar images in a research of the work of instalations for artificial influence on the geosphere

D. Gotchev, R. Nedkov, M. Dimitrova                       25-33

III. TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPOLUTION

Adsorption of heavy metals from contaminated soils using oyster mushroom (Pleurotus Ostreatus)

M. Mladenov, S. Yaneva, D. Kolchakova                    34-39

Extraction of some organic acids by means of molecular extractants and ionic liquids

S. Zhivkova, M. Bogdanov                            40-52

Electrochemical denitrification

Ts. Parvanova-Mancheva, E. Vasileva, V. Beschkov                             53-59

IV. ECOLOGICAL AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Ecological assessment of adaptive capacity and environment during the cultivation of fruit crops

V. Scorina, F. Mousaev, Vit. Scorina,                          60-69

Potential of moisture under the phase transition of the soil solution in sod-non-fertile soil

H. Muromcev, U. Magajskii, K. Anisimov, H. Semenov, T. Guseva                          70-74

V. FOREST BIOLOGY

Investigation on chernozems in the Ludogorie region

S. Bogdanov, V. Ilinkin, A. Goleva                                         75-80





 

 




























INDICATORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGARDING TRANSPORT

Miryana Evtimova

Abstract: The subject of this study are the indicators of environmental protection in terms of transport. The aim is the analysis of trends and identifying key factors for environmental protection. An comparative analysis of various indicators such as passenger and freight transport by different modes of transport, consumption of conventional and alternative fuels and greenhouse gas emissions is made. Discusses are the results of final energy consumption in economic sectors and the share of renewable energy in fuel consumption. Presented is a comparative analysis of carbon dioxide emissions from road and other transport modes. Analyzed the results of the study of the emission balance for the lifecycle of sunflower oil as biofuel. Finally, conclusions are made about the possibilities of the improving the indicators of environmental protection in transport.

Keywords: transport, greenhouse gases, emissions, alternative fuels

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MARKETING STUDY ON THE DEGREE OF CONSERVATION OF THE NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE CENTRAL BALKAN NATIONAL PARK

Snezhana Ivanova, Dessislava Markova

Abstract: We was conducted a marketing study in order to reveal the opportunities for development of ecotourism on the territory of Central Balkan National Park by exploring the attitude of the tourists to conduct ecotourism on the territory of the park. Questionnaires are processed statistically and mathematically. The results are presented graphically.

Keywords: aerosols, atmospheric pollution, remote sensing, ecology

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TOTAL β-ACTIVITY IN ORIENTAL TOBACCO GROWN UNDER STATIONARY NON-FERTILIZING CONDITIONS

Anka Georgieva, Stefka Kirkova

Abstract: Throughout his life, man is exposed to different electromagnetic radiation. Some of these radiations have the ability to ionize the atoms, Ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation determines the natural radiation background of the surrounding environment.

Radioactive conversion is accompanied by the emission of α- or β-particles or γ-radiation. Different rays have different penetrating capabilities. This ability for β-particles increases with their energy.

The radionuclides of earthly origin are absorbed by plant roots and are included in plant structures. From there, they continue along the food chain. Apart from swallowing food and water, radionuclides also fall into the human body by inhalation.

In recent years, the WHO's work under the FCTC has revealed a new theory that radionuclides in tobacco products are the cause of diseases due to their consumption.

There is no evidence that it is generally contained β-active radioisotopes in tobacco products are the cause of various malignant, chronic and other diseases.

The purpose of our study was to establish the total β-activity of the leaves from individual harvesting belts in oriental tobacco grown under stationary non-fertilizing conditions. Under the selected growing conditions, the values for total β-activity of the samples are the result of naturally occurring potassium. The resulting tobacco raw material is not radiation-contaminated.

Keywords: tobacco, total β-activity, ionizing radiation

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REGISTRATION OF SAND STORMS, DIRECTED TO BULGARIA USING DATA FROM GOME-2, OMI AND MODIS FOR THE PERIOD OF 2004 -2017

Maria Dimitrova, Plamen Trenchev, Deyan Gochev

Abstract: In this work is presented registering sandstorms from the Sahara that stretch thousands of miles above the Aegean Sea and in many cases reach Bulgaria. We examine the period from the beginning of 2012 until now. For sources of information we select the data from the sensors MODIS (satellites Terra and Aqua) and GOME-2 (satellites METOP A and METOP B) and OMI (satellite AQUA). We use two methods for registering the sand flow. The first uses images in the visible range of the spectrum from MODIS with a resolution of 250 m. The second uses data for aerosol absorption index - AAI (optical thickness of the atmosphere), obtained from meteorological satellites data with a resolution of 40 km. It was found that sand flows into the atmosphere over the Aegean aimed at the territory of Bulgaria are mostly seen in the spring months and not less than 20 days each year. In many cases they reach the airspace over the country and muddy rains are observed. We discussed the ecological importance of this phenomenon, which is expressed on the one hand in increasing cloudiness due to condensation of water vapor around the sand particles and - on the other - a distant transmission elements in the atmosphere, and hence on the ground.

Key words: aerosols, atmospheric pollution, remote sensing, ecology, questionnaires, recreation, attractions, respondents

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THE USE OF RADAR IMAGES IN A RESEARCH OF THE WORK OF INSTALATIONS FOR ARTIFICIAL INFLUENCE ON THE GEOSPHERE

Deyan Gotchev, Roumen Nedkov, Maria Dimitrova

Abstract: Data (~200 images, for some of the installations are with dual polarization) for an interval from 01.01.2015 till 15.03.2017 are received from the SAR on board the Sentinel- 1A and 1B satellites, part of the ESA Copernicus program. Three installations for artificial heating of the ionosphere by radio-waves in the Northern Hemisphere (2 in the aurora oval, 1 in mid-latitude) are observed. Independent from the season and geomagnetic activity, three different images types for each of the three installations are detected, which we suppose to depend on the antenna fields different work regimes. There are studied cases of simultaneous work of both installations in the aurora oval. Some cases suggest a possible connection between the work of all the 3 installations. Some of the results could be used for a research of some cases of abnormal phenomena, which not caused by natural solar-terrestrial interactions. The effects of a combined simultaneous activity from both the ground installation modulating signal and that from the satellite SAR are of important interest too.

Key words: ionospheric heater, SAR, Sentinel- 1A, Sentinel- 1B

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ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS USING OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

Metodi Mladenov, Spaska Yaneva, Desislava Kolchakova

Abstract: Soil contamination with heavy metals is one among most serious problems for protection of soils and preservation of possibility for suitable for consumption crop production. In current article the results from done experiments with Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) for assimilation of heavy metals from contaminated soils for decreasing of their concentration on soil are described. It was established the possibility for growth on Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium in contaminated with heavy metals soil, and its cultivation in soils substratum with calcium sulphate and coffee lees. Obtained data show selective assimilation of elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Al, Bi, Mn and Fe.

Keywords: contaminated soils; heavy metals; Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus); bioremediation.

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EXTRACTION OF SOME ORGANIC ACIDS BY MEANS OF MOLECULAR EXTRACTANTS AND IONIC LIQUIDS

Svetlana Zhivkova, Milen Bogdanov

Abstract:A huge number of compounds found in nature are organic acids. When they are produced microbiologically it is necessary for the end product to be removed so as to reduce the product inhibition. They are also discharged as the result of various industries where it is advisable that they should be extracted and utilized. In this process traditional molecular extractants are not normally used on their own. In most cases they are diluted with a variety of toxic, inflammable and explosive organic diluents. In the last decade aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on ionic liquids (IL) have been successfully implemented in a wide range of extraction and separation processes. The interest in them rests on the fact they can be used both on their own as extractants and as alternative substitutes for volatile diluents, for which reason they have been named green solvents. The aim of this research is to survey the quantitative characteristics of some organic acid extraction processes in utilizing classic molecular extractants and ionic liquids, as well as to demonstrate the long-term expediency of using ionic liquids when removed from fermentation environments or waste waters.

Key words: organic acids, extraction, molecular extractants, ionic liquids, aqueous two-phase systems

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ELECTROCHEMICAL DENITRIFICATION

Tsvetomila Parvanova-Mancheva, Evgenia Vasileva, Venko Beschkov

Abstract: Contamination of water sources with nitrates can happen in several ways. Much of the research indicated that the main pollution sources of groundwater with nitrates due to the non-productive agricultural sources. The increasing use throughout the world fertilizer in agriculture is the cause of pollution by nitrates. The Nitrate ions penetrate through the soil and for that reason fall in the groundwater. Waste water from households, industry, animal farms are another way for contamination of surface water with nitrates.Flexible elimination of nitrates in drinking water or wastewater treatment can be performed efficiently by traditional methods for this purpose is available bio-electrochemical method.

The review of the literature illustrates the effect of the electric current and the design of the reactor on the reduction of nitrate. There is a possibility for new research and application of bio-electrochemical method. For example, one can focus the studies on the material from which to produce the electrodes and form, means for increasing the active surface of the cathode and the construction of bio-electrochemical reactors, as well as the detection of dependencies and mathematical models for simulation and optimization.

Key words: denitrification, nitrates, bio-electrochemical denitrification

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ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ADAPTIVE CAPACITY AND ENVIRONMENT DURING THE CULTIVATION OF FRUIT CROPS

V. V. Scorina, F.B. Mousaev, Vit. V. Scorina,

Abstract: It has been shown that the use of traditional methods of selection and seed production in the cultivation of varieties through adaptation and breeding is ineffective without the application of ecological selection methods. The environmental assessment as a background for selection by adaptation is possible by using different types of variability: seasonal, ecological-geographic and their combination in the course of study. Of great importance in the creation of new varieties of fruit crops with the application of the ecological geographic factor is the scientifically substantiated selection of the starting material, its variety and characteristics in different cultivation conditions.Studies have been carried out for many years to identify the most favorable natural areas for seed production, to speed up the selection and to create new varieties with high productivity and environmental stability. Environmental parameters are defined as a background for selection of genotypes.The article analyzes the results of the assessment of different varieties of fruit crops, having adaptive capacity and ecological stability. The starting material of the crops was studied in different ecological and geographical areas. The optimal areas for seed production have been identified. New varieties of fruit crops have been created and submitted for registration in the Belarusian State Register.

Keywords: variety, culture, ecological environment, background, productivity, adaptability, typicalness.

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POTENTIAL OF MOISTURE UNDER THE PHASE TRANSITION OF THE SOIL SOLUTION IN SOD-NON-FERTILE SOIL

H.A. Muromcev, U.A. Magajskii, K.B. Anisimov, H.A. Semenov, T.M. Guseva

Abstract: new fact of abrupt intermittent augmentation of moisture potential during transition of soil temperature from positive values to negative ones through zero is established. The process is going under the conditions of phase transition of soil solution in case of stable state of all other environment characteristics except soil temperature. Dropping of moisture potential (in constant humidity) upon conditions of temperature rising is explained by augmentation of agility and activity of moisture ions. Drop of temperature stipulates augmentation of the potential due to decrease of agility and activity of water ions. Daily changes of soil temperature and soil moisture potential are insignificant and range within 0.1 1.9 and 2 3 kPa respectively.

Key words: atmospheric precipitation, total evaporation, moisture potential, soil temperature, moisture exchange, aeration zone, minimal hygroscopicity, moisture diffusion

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INVESTIGATION ON CHERNOZEMS IN THE LUDOGORIE REGION

Simeon Bogdanov, Vladimir Ilinkin, Antonia Goleva

Abstract. The paper presents results from investigation on soils of class Chernozems (FAO, 2006) located in the Ludogorie region. They are situated in the Lower forest vegetation zone (0 600 m a.s.l.) of the Moesian forest vegetation area. Soil samples have been taken from three soil profiles. The factors of soil formation have been characterized. Soil physical and chemical properties have been investigated. The results are processed by statistical programme. The arithmetical averages (M) and variation coefficients (Cv%) have been calculated. The data obtained from soil analyses show suitable conditions for agricultural and forestry activities as well as lack of prerequisites for soil degradation.

Key words: chernozems, factors of soil formation, physical properties

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