EEEP 4/2016


CONTENTS

Editor's comment

I. Simeonov                  3-4

I. MAN AND BIOSPHERE

Recognition of phenomena in the atmosphere using data from MODIS

M. Dimitrova                    5-8

Modeling groundwater flow in heterogeneous soils in river terraces

S. Borissov                   9-15

Land cover as an indicator for environmental evaluation for ecotourism using GIS technologies

E. Sarafova                  16-21

Investigation of the changes in pH, redox potencial, free chlorous and antimicrobial activity of ionized water (anolite) at different storage conditions

M. Nikolova, G. Gluhchev, S. Karadzhov, I. Hristoskova, N. Ivanov                    22-26

II. TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPOLUTION

Algorithm for application of complex preparation for bioaugmentation of composting

I. Schneider, N. Saykova, Ts. Petrova, K. Todorova, A. Markov, N. Savov, Ya. Topalova                        27-34

Denitrification by immobilized crude cell-free extracts

Ts. Parvanova-Mancheva, E. Vasileva, V. Beschkov                        35-39

Creation and management of a pilot plant for composting of garden wastes

I. Schneider, A. Markov, I. Yotinov, N. Dinova, N. Savov, Ya. Topalova                    40-48

III. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND BIOFUELS

Small wind energy conversion systems

I. Bachev                   49-62

IV. FOREST BIOLOGY

Growth and survival of Picea Abies  (l.) Karst. provenances in Govedarci and Iasenkovo experimental stations

E. Nedkova                        63-70

V. BIOAUTOMATICS AND BIOINFORMATICS

Methodological problems in simulation of the agro-ecosystems

A. Sadovski                          71-76





 

 

























RECOGNITION OF PHENOMENA IN THE ATMOSPHERE USING DATA FROM MODIS

Maria Dimitrova

Abstract: Data from the MODIS spectroradiometer of Terra and Aqua satellites from NASA's EOS program are especially suited for registering events with scale over several square kilometers and for monitoring their dynamics. While terrestrial phenomena can be registered by the change in the impact of them on previous observations, phenomena in the atmosphere are not tied to a particular object or place. Last, as part of the air masses are not dense object and move along with the atmosphere. So they become more difficult for recognition. On the other hand, especially because of its character are particularly suitable for investigation using satellite data.
This work presents a methodology for identifying phenomena in the atmosphere, according to data from MODIS by building spectral reflectance characteristics typical of their points.

Key words:
remote sensing, atmospheric phenomena, spectral reflectance characteristics

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MODELING GROUNDWATER FLOW IN HETEROGENEOUS SOILS IN RIVER TERRACES

Svilen Borissov

Abstract. Protection of groundwater as a renewable natural resource is related to its good knowledge knowledge of the dynamics of its flow, the dynamics of pollution and self-purification. These are extremely complex processes which in the recent years of rapid development of computer technology have become more accessible for modelling and due to this progress ever more realistic groundwater flow and inlet pollutants 3D simulations have become possible.

In this article an exemplary approach to solving problems related to mathematical modelling of groundwater flow in heterogeneous soils in river terraces will be presented, the study being made for a particular section of the Tundzha River valley. To meet this target a GIS with a spatial database, field measurements and its own software calculation and visualization VISMAT based on open source applications have been used.

Keywords: groundwater, modelling, GIS applications, open source software

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Land Cover as an Indicator for Environmental Evaluation for Ecotourism Using GIS Technologies

Evgenia Sarafova

Abstract: In recent decades, satellite images are widely used in such fields as agriculture, archeology, infrastructure management, etc. Global trends lead to the application of spatial data and analysis in more and more sectors of the economy. The application of remote sensing in ecotourism should be analyzed from two perspectives - on the one hand the final product (in the form of digital or paper map), obtained by using remote sensing images or GIS, is an essential tool for communication with consumers of tourism services, and on the other hand satellite images are an important tool in the process of planning and management of tourism infrastructure. The main objective of this report is to examine the possibilities of land cover to serve as an indicator in the study of ecotourism potential at municipality level. It compares data from CORINE Land Cover and the results from the classification and visual interpretation of satellite images from Landsat 8 and Landsat ETM + for the municipality of Kyustendil.

Keywords: remote sensing, ecotourism, GIS

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INVESTIGATION OF THE CHANGES IN pH, REDOX POTENCIAL, FREE CHLOROUS  AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF IONIZED WATER (ANOLITE) AT DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS

M. Nikolova, G. Gluhchev, S. Karadzhov, I. Hristoskova, N. Ivanov

Abstract. The anolyte, obtained during the electrochemical activation of low mineralized water solutions possesses a strong biocidal action due to its physico-chemical characteristics. In this study the changes in the parameters pH, ORP and the presence of active chlorous during the time and at different storage conditions of the anolyte were examined. The experiments showed their stability and preservation of biocidal activity for a period longer than 9 months.

Key words: ionized water, electrochemical activation, anolyte, pH, ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential), biocidal effect

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Algorithm for Application of complex preparation for bioaugmentation of COMPOSTING

 Irina Schneider, Neli Saykova, Tsvetomira Petrova, Kristina Todorova, Antonio Markov, Nikolay Savov, Yana Topalova

Abstract: The bioaugmentation of the transformation processes of solid wastes, including also composting as a method for treatment of biodegradable wastes, mainly is based on application of microbial and/or enzyme lyophilized preparations. The technological algorithm for application of preparations (method of use) determined to a large extent the revitalization and the activation of microorganisms in the lyophilized preparations. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect from modification of method of use for the commercial product Compost Plus on quantity and activity of microorganisms in the course of composting in pilot garden composters. The applied modification included initial addition of glucose and extending the time for microbial revitalization. This modification led to increase of total microbial count, quantity of aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms (including yeasts) and led to stimulation of metabolic activity of the microbial community investigated by the total aerobic dehydrogenase activity. The obtained results are promising for initially accelerating the biodegradation processes during composting.

 Keywords: bioaugmentation, composting, dehydrogenase activity, microbial preparation

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DENITRIFICATION BY IMMOBILIZED CRUDE CELL-FREE EXTRACTS

Ts.I. Parvanova-Mancheva, E. Vasileva, V. Beschkov

Abstract. The immobilization of disintegrated cells of Pseudomonas denitrificans on polymeric supports was carried out. The material for the fixing of the cells was obtained by the copolymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylamide in the form of porous granules with a diameter of 2 mm. The enzyme systems presented in the initial immobilized cell are not isolated and purified. To monitor the process of denitrification low nitrate concentrations were used. It has been proven advantage of immobilized acellular extracts to the free cells in the reduction process of nitatnite ions.

Key words: denitrification, immobilization, Pseudomonas denitrificans

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Creation and management Of a pilot plant for composting of GARDEN wastes in Biological Faculty of Sofia University

Irina Schneider, Antonio Markov, Ivaylo Yotinov, Nora Dinova, Nikolay Savov, Yana Topalova

Abstract: The key aspects during creation and management of a pilot plant for composting in the yard of Faculty of Biology were discussed in the article. They included: i/ environmental aspects of composting as a low-waste technology for garden waste utilization; ii/ technological aspects related to equipments and technological parameters of the process; iii/ ecological aspects of biological systems carrying out the processes; iv/ management aspects related to systems for control of raw materials, processes and final product (compost); v/ educational aspects for development of new professional skills and competences of the students. The strengths and weaknesses during of the pilot plant exploitation were analyzed as well as what are the main threats and ways to overcome it using existing opportunities.

Keywords: composting, control parameters, garden wastes

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SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS

Ivan Bachev

Abstract: This paper presents a review of the contemporary small wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The different types of wind turbines are shown. A classification of the small WECS by the type of their electrical generator is made. The most typical topologies of power electronic converters, used in small WECS are also presented. The possibilities for building integration of small wind turbines are examined.

Keywords: wind generators, wind turbines, small wind energy conversion systems, WECS, power electronic converters.

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GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PICEA ABIES  (L.) KARST. PROVENANCES IN GOVEDARCI AND IASENKOVO EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS

Elena Nedkova

Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the survival and diameter growth at age 39 of 18 Norway spruce provenances in two experimental stations, with provenances from the native range of the species in Bulgaria from the following mountains: The Rhodopes, Rila, Pirin, Vitosha and Stara Planina.  One being situated near  Govedarci village at 1250 m a.s.l. alongside a spruce-fir forest, the other outside of the native range of the Norway spruce close to Iasenkovo village near Shumen at 450 m a.s.l.

 The  analysis established that most provenances show good adaptability to the conditions in Iasenkovo where they have an overall good growth and survival, not very different from that in Govedarci.

 The best performing provenances regarding DBH are those from the Rhodopes mountains, while those from Rila mountain show poor growth and survival.

Keywords: Picea abies (L.) Karst., Norway spruce, provenances, experimental stations Govedarci, Iasenkovo.

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METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN SIMULATION OF THE AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS

Alexander N. Sadovski

Summary: Simulation models describe the functioning of agro-ecosystems and the flow of processes in them using computer programs. With their help can be made computer experiments and to predict the behavior of agro-ecosystems. One of the main problems in the creation of simulation models is imitation of uncontrollable soil and weather factors. A number of studies of soil properties and meteorological characteristics indicate that these stochastic variables do not follow the normal (Gaussian) distribution. In the selection of statistical models that approximate the distribution of such stochastic variables, the most appropriate is a family of Johnson distributions. The article examines ways to generate pseudorandom numbers from Johnson and Burr distributions families for simulating soil and weather factors determining agro-ecosystems.

Keywords: Simulation modeling, agro-ecosystems, empirical distributions, pseudorandom numbers.

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