EEEP 4/2015



Editor's comment

I. Simeonov                  3-4


Environmental effects and consequences of floods in the region of Maritsa river during the period 2005 – 2014 by using satellite, GPS and terrestrial data

N. Stankova, I. Ivanova, N. Pavlova, R. Nedkov, M. Zaharinova                     5-14

Environmental monitoring on wetlands restoration in the area of quarry lakes

K. Radeva                     15-22


Bactericidal effect of electrochemically activated water on the aerobic bacterial population of digestate

L. Dimitrova, V. Kussovski, I. Tsvetkova, S. Mihaylova, N. Ivanov, G. Gluhchev, H. Najdenski                      23-32


Biodegradation of 1,2-dibromoethane by Klebsiella Oxytoca VA 8391 strain

E. Vasileva, V. Beschkov, Ts. Parvanova-Mancheva                     33-37

Stabilization methods sewage sludge from wastewater plant treatment station and use in practice

E. Zlatareva, S. Marinova, M. Banov, V. Georgieva                     38-45

Assessment of the deep wastewater discharge  from point emitter into Burgas bay

A. Simeonova, T. Zhekova, N. Nikov                      46-55


Distribution, structure and regeneration of  Norway spruse forests in Vitosha mountain

B. Hristova, N. Stoyanova                      56-63


Simulation model of the hydrodynamic parameters northwest Bourgas bay

T. Zhekova                      64-72


Study of the influence of ultrasound on the anaerobic digestion of wasted fruits and vegetables

I.Simeonov, D. Denchev, V. Hubenov, S. Mihajlova, E. Chorukova                   73-80


World forest forum

A. Alexandrov                      81

Ninth Balkan congress of microbiology

D.. Denchev                       82

National conference with international participation “Ecology and health” 2016, Plovdiv                                                                                                                                          84

Environmental effects and consequences of floods in the region of Maritsa river during the period 2005 – 2014 by using satellite, GPS and terrestrial data

Nataliya Stankova, Iva Ivanova, Nadya Pavlova, Roumen Nedkov, Mariana Zaharinova

Abstract. The aim of this study is monitoring of environmental impacts after the flood from 2005 in the region of Maritsa river by monitoring the consequences, the recovery of the vegetation and the current condition of the region in 2014. Four significant floods were registered in Bulgaria during 2005 caused by torrential rains, rising of groundwater and overflow of rivers and dams. The proposed methodology was applied to part of the flood area from 08-12 August, 2005 in the region of Parvomay municipality. The methodology is based on satellite, GPS and terrestrial data. Satellite images with high resolution were used and an accurate assessment of the water bodies location and the river system which may be one of the main reasons for floods. By applying GIS as a tool for analysis and monitoring of floods results with sufficient accuracy concerning the impacts on the environment were obtained. Based on the results and after applying the methodology vegetation restoration was observed which provides conditions for development of new habitats. A process of vegetation canopy recovery was observed in areas which are characterized with high drought and increases in NDVI values which indicate better condition and increase the volume of leaf biomass.

Keywords: flood, consequences, satellite data, remote sensing, GIS



Kameliya Radeva

Abstract. The main purpose of the report is to represent basic stages of activities during implementation of projects related to wetland restoration. The report describes the basic steps and methods for data collection, survey of the study area – wetland type, data generating, internal monitoring implementation and effectiveness of restoration activities evaluation. The specific objective of the report is to analyze the importance of GIS applications in the process of environmental monitoring for sustainable restoration of wetland habitats.

The main activities are grouped as follows: feasibility studies, restoration activities design, restoration activities implementation (technical and biological restoration of habitats and species), reintroduction of rare flora and fauna types of European importance. Decision making on applying of suitable measures referring to activities under technical and biological habitats and species restoration will be underlined. The issue on correlations between implemented preliminary studies, suitable design solutions based on real results and restoration/construction works in environmental projects management has been investigated. Afforestation activities and fishing campaigns will be revised as part of biological restoration of habitats and species.The information of this report has innovative character as it presents methods of environmental monitoring on wetland restoration projects. The results that demonstrate the effectiveness of applying environmental monitoring and validate the successful implementation of a certain wetland recovery process are presented in the report.

Key words: wetlands, biological restoration, satellite data, GPS, habitats, environmental monitoring


Lyudmila Dimitrova, Vesselin Kussovski, Iva Tsvetkova, Snejanka Mihaylova, Nikolay Ivanov, Georgi Gluhchev, Hristo Najdenski

Abstract. In the recent years, electrochemically activated water (ECAW) is considered as an alternative disinfectant used for the decontamination of objects of clinical practice and the environment. Low percentage of aqueous solution of sodium chloride and an electrolytic cell was used for its preparation. The main advantages of ECAW than traditional disinfectants are its high microbicidity, easier and cheaper preparation, and the safety for the treated objects. Despite its high acidity, it is gentle to the surface of inorganic or organic nature. The possibility for decontamination of digestate obtained in the process of biogas production is examined in the recent paper. The optimal conditions for the impact of ECAW on the available in the digestate aerobic bacteria leading to their killing like the duration of treatment, the ratio of digestate and activated water, and the influence of substances of digestate on the bactericidal effect of ECAW are determined. There is a reduction of the number of Gram-negative bacteria with log 4 after two-hour treatment at a ratio of 1:3 digestate:activated water, as well as complete elimination of the microbial population (Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria) under the same conditions after a pre-diluting the digestate in ratio 1: 100 and 1: 1000. ECAW completely eliminates methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli in experiments in vitro with sterile filtrate of the digestate. The results indicate the prospects of the ECAW application for treatment of digestate and its possible use as a fertilizer in agriculture.

Keywords: digestate, electrochemically activated water (ECAW), aerobic bacteria, bactericidal effect



Evgenia Vasileva, Venko Beschkov, Tsvetomila Parvanova-Mancheva

Abstract. 1,2-Dibromoethane is widely used in practice as pesticide and anti-knocking mains for engines. However, it is very toxic and therefore too dangerous for the environment. Its biodegradation passes through very toxic intermediates (e.g. bromo-acetaldehyde) and that is why the complete biodegradation is not observed. In the present study comparative biodegradation was carried out by the strain Klebsiella oxytoca VA 8391 with and without presence of NaCl. In both cases cell growth was observed initially followed by quick death of the biomass at the end of processes. In the presence of NaCl, complete degradation of 1,2-dibromoethane was attained along with the release of stoichiometric quantity of bromide. This fact is an evidence for the full degradation of the substrate to glycolic acid and mineralization. In the absence of NaCl the biodegradation of 1,2-dibromoethane stops when only one bromide ion is detached, i.e. the biodegradation stopped only to the formation of bromoacetaldehyde and bromo-acetic acid at the process end.

Key words: 1,2-Dibromoethane, Klebsiella oxytoca VA 8391, bromoacetaldehyde, bromide ions


Stabilization methods sewage sludge FROM Wastewater plant treatment station and USE in practice

Elena Zlatareva, Svetla Marinova, Martin Banov, Veselka Georgieva

Abstract: The large amount of sludge generated in Wastewater plant treatment station (WWTP) and lack of slug fields for their stabilization have conducted this study. It is used sludge from WWTP Stara Zagora treated with 15, 20 and 30% fine and coarse lime /CaO/. The sludges were analyzed before and after treatment with lime in agrochemical, chemical and microbiological parameters and content of organic pollutants as required by the law. It was found that the most effective treatment was with 20% fine lime of the dry substance of the sludge. Treatment of sludge with lime does not have a negative effect on their chemical and agrochemical characteristics.

Keywords: sewage sludge, decontamination, lime



Anna Simeonova, Tatyana Zhekova, Nikolai Nikov

Abstract: In the present study was investigated the reduction of pollutants’ concentrations in the  wastewater of “Elenite” Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) for 2013 year after deep water discharge in Burgas Bay, based on mathematical approach. For that purpose data of the wastewaters’ quantities and physico - chemical characteristics for 2013 were used, as well as some hydro - chemical characteristics of the Burgas Bay coastal waters. The initial wastewaters dilution was determined at the area of discharge, applying Sederval method and using the following effluent characteristics: total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Total N, Total P. The pollutants concentrations at the end of the deep outfall pipe along the water jet axis was calculated after the initial dilution and at the sea surface either. The area of pollutants’ spreading on the sea surface was estimated. Considerable reduction of the pollutants’ concentrations was determined within the mixing zone due to the deep wastewater outfall - almost 9 times lower compared to those at the WWTP outlet. The wastewater area of spreading was insignificant and of a large distance from the bathing zones. However, the concentrations of pollutants were significantly above the threshold limits for coastal waters.

Key words: wastewater, point emitter, deep discharge, Burgas Bay



Biljana Hristova, Nadezhda Stoyanova

Abstract: The allocation, structure and regeneration of the most distributed coniferous species Picea abies (L.) Karsten in Nortwestern part of Vitosha Mountain were studyed. It is described the distribution of spruce forests according to altitude, age structure, conopy and other characteristics. On the basis of the data collected, follows that in investigated region Norway spruse (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is formed clean on composition and mix dendrocoenoses with different participation in theirs composition of Fagus sylvatica L., Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L.and some other spesies. The distribution and regeneration of the forests are conditioned mainly by natural conditions, biological peculiarities and ecological demands of the tree species. The article introduce some importantly research aspects about the ecology, site conditions and regeneration of Norway spruse forests in Vitosha Mountain.

Key words:  Norway spruse, ecology, climate, state, regeneration


Simulation model of the hydrodynamic parameters NORTHWEST Bourgas Bay

Tatiana Zhekova                                                     

Abstract: Marine and ocean beaches are exposed to the complex action of the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. One of the major environmental factors that determine sustainable development of coastal zones is the hydrodynamics. The main hydrodynamic parameters that influence the beaches and coastal facilities are currents. The article dealt with the methods and means to develop a simulation model of the hydrodynamic parameters in the Northwestern part of the Bourgas Bay, taking into consideration the geographical characteristics of the aquatic area. The interaction of hydro - meteorological parameters of coastal waters in the selected area (wind and currents) was analyzed and applied in the simulation model. 3D simulation model of currents was developed to facilitate the assessment of the impact on the marine environment in the investigated area.

Kay words: simulation model, hydrodynamic parameters, currents, wind, Geography Informational System



I.Simeonov, D. Denchev, V. Hubenov, S. Mihajlova, E. Chorukova

Abstract. In biological experiments, treatment with ultrasound (US) is implemented in two main directions - for destruction of biological material and to stimulate various cells functions. In the first case - using generators of US with high power, in the second - with power up to 80 W and frequency of 20-40 kHz. At anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste this physical factor is applied to a greater degree for pre-treatment of the raw materials in order to accomplish its partial destruction.

The aim of this paper was to study the effect of treatment of the culture, containing the biological agent - microbial community and a mixture of wasted fruits and vegetables (WFV) as a substrate with US with power up to 120 W and frequency of 28 kHz.

The experiments were conducted in two identical laboratory bioreactors with working volumes of 2 liters working volume in a continuous mode. The bottom flange of the first bioreactor was bonded to ultrasound emitter. The temperature was kept constant (34 ± 0.5 ºC). Samples were taken from the outgoing substance for conducting biochemical and microbiological analyses in compliance with all requirements for anaerobic conditions. Daily measurements were performed of the yield of biogas. The effect of US on the yield of biogas and the degree of biodegradation were examined in two different versions: In the first one – the influence of power and time of the sound effect on the formation of biogas from acetate was followed, and in the second – sound with optimum amplitude of the US (determined in the first case) to study its effects on all the populations involved in the AD of WFV, at criterion maximizing the biogas yields.

Key words: ultrasound, anaerobic digestion, laboratory experiments, biogas production