EEEP 4/2012

CONTENTS

 

 

Editor's comment

I. Simeonov             3

I. Human and biosphere
Contemporary landscapes and their anthropoČgenic stage in part of the upper lom river basin, mapped by GIS on the base of GPS, satellite and ground data
Zornitza Cholakova, Daniela Avetisyan, Ekaterina Ivanova, Roumen Nedkov             4-12
Small and medium enterprises and the environment
Nesho Chipev, Sonya Petkova, Georgi Raichevski, ╩ostadin Kostadinov             13-18
Meausures taken to protect local ecosystem while development of power plants in the Czorsztyn-Nidzica area
Franciszek Switala                19-23
II. Technologies for depolution
Surface active compounds: structure, properties and role in bioremediation
Anna Sotirova, Irina Lazarkevich, Danka Galabova                 24-34
Seasonal effect on biodegradation of dairy effluent by free and immobilized bacterial cells
S.Chaman, A.Bhardwaj                 35-39
Establishment of the effect of digestate produced in anaerobic degestion of mixture of pig manure and wasted fruits and vegetables
Elena Zlatareva, Svetla Marinova, Rositca Toncheva, Vera Petrova, Snezanka Mihailova                40-44
 
III. Bioinformatics and bioautomatics
A mathematical study of the impact of methanogenic and hydrogenotrophic steps on biomethane production from organic wastes
Ivan Simeonov, Alexander Kroumov             45-51
IV. Renewable energy sources and biofuels
Inertia influence on mppt operation of a wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator
Vladimir Lazarov, Zahari Zarkov, Ludmil Stoyanov              52-58
Intensification of bioethanol manufacturing and its impact on environmental
Anton Stoyanov, Kantcho Lahtchev             59-68
V. Scientific forums
Third congress of virosology (Days of virosology in Bulgaria), Stefan Angeloff institute of microbioČlogy ľ BAS, 25-27 October 2012                  69-70
VI. Jubilee
Acad. Yachko Ivanov at the age of 80         71-72






























CONTEMPORARY LANDSCAPES AND THEIR ANTHROPOGENIC STAGE IN PART OF THE UPPER LOM RIVER BASIN, MAPPED BY GIS ON THE BASE OF GPS, SATELLITE AND GROUND DATA

Zornitza Cholakova, Daniela Avetisyan, Ekaterina Ivanova, Roumen Nedkov
Abstract: Cartographic methods, satellite data and GIS resource, used in this paper are especially valuable for establishing the direction and trends in the anthropogenic landscape changes. Geo-data base in GIS was created. Thematic map of contemporary landscapes in part of the upper Lom River Basin was composed and anthropogenic stage of the landscapes was classified on the base of those data. A territorial analysis of the level of human impact on the individual landscapes in the region was made on the base of the cartographic results.
Key words: contemporary landscapes, anthropogenic stage, GIS, satellite data, Upper Lom River basin

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SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Nesho Chipev, Sonya Petkova, Georgi Raichevski, ╩ostadin Kostadinov

Summary:. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) can play a key role in the economics of most countries. EUROSTAT registered roughly 20 million SMEs, corresponding to 99.8% of all enterprises in Europe employing almost 70% of the European workforce and producing close to 60% of the overall turnover from manufacturing and services. In Bulgaria more than 98% of all enterprises are SMES. They can have a significant cumulative effect of the environment via their activities, product and services. Reducing the environmental impact is a challenge to SMEs all over Europe. Surveys showed that SMEs are not mass-engaged in environmental management. The relationships and environmental problems of Bulgarian SMEs in the sectors Metal Production, Surface Treatment, Chemical Industry, Electric and Electronic Components, and Textile Industry were studied using the inquiry approach. Regional Inspectorates for Environment and Waters (RIEW) were asked to provide information on the environmental performance of controlled by them SMEs in the sectors studied. Analyzing the results was found that 33.3% of them had a person responsible for environmental matters who was staff member.  Most SMEs declared that they had some form of environmental policy (77.8%) and another 11% were willing to develop such policy.  None of the interviewed SMEs had introduced Environmental Management System. However, some 44.4% were recognizing the need to establish one.  The main conclusion from analyzes of information and data on Bulgarian SMEs from the five sectors studied was that the main problems in their environmental performance were related to documentation operation and reporting obligations. Another concern determined is referring to the lack of adequate information and knowledge according to many interviewees. Environmental Management System (EMS) is almost not applied at all by SMEs. It is a burdensome process for SMEs to apply EMS. One of the reasons for not applying EMS could be that it has no economic effect and no reduction in the operating costs at the present time.
Key words: SME, environmental policy, chemical industry, textile, metal production, surface treatment, electric and electronic components, Environmental Management Systems.

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MEAUSURES TAKEN TO PROTECT LOCAL ECOSYSTEM WHILE DEVELOPMENT OF POWER PLANTS IN THE CZORSZTYN-NIDZICA AREA

Franciszek Switala

Abstract: Paper presents the methodology chosen for development of Czorsztyn-Nidzica pumped storage power plants. Methodology complied with the environmental requirements raised by the proximity of national park.  Dunajec river, which is the base for the project, is a mountain river with high energy potential. Its flooding potential is mostly noted in the lower situated areas. Water quality in the Dunajec river is ranked 1st class regarding its purity. Development of power plants secured lower situated areas from flooding and created an energy production potential of 158 428 MWh, out of which 7 885 MWh is obtained from Nidzica power plant.
Keywords: Czorsztyn-Nidzica, power plant, environment protection, ecosystem

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SURFACE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS: STRUCTURE, PROPERTIES AND ROLE IN BIOREMEDIATION

Anna Sotirova, Irina Lazarkevich, Danka Galabova

Abstract: Environmental pollution with low soluble organic compounds is a problem that enlarged considerably in the recent years. Industry contributes various kinds of contamination. The pollution with organic compounds is of great concern especially because of their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on the living organisms. Conventional methods to remove, reduce, or mitigate toxic substances are not effective. Bioremediation is a natural process which relies on bacteria, fungi, and plants to alter contaminants as these organisms carry out their normal life functions. Metabolic processes of these organisms are capable of using chemical contaminants as an energy source, rendering the contaminants harmless or less toxic products in most cases. The low solubility of aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons significantly decreases their availability for microbial cells. Many studies demonstrate that use of surface-active compounds, most known as surfactants, is a promising approach to promote changes in the cell surface properties.  Many surface active compounds are able to interact with the cell surface interrupting its integrity in a way to increase its permeability to low soluble compounds as hydrocarbons. The surfactants are amphiphilic molecules and their specific chemical structure induces special features. The surfactants tend to increase the hydrocarbon solubility by lowering the interfacial tension between the water phase and the hydrocarbons. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is a basic characteristic of the surfactants. Under CMC they are in monomeric state and the monomers tend to interact directly with the microbial cells and with the hydrocarbons. Above CMC they form structures called micelles by which the surfactants actively sollubilize the hydrocarbons and thus increase their bioavailability. Chemically synthesized surfactants are broadly used in the industry and for domestic purposes, as well as in the scientific research. Recently of special interest are the microbial surfactants (biosurfactants). They have several advantages over chemical surfactants such as lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and structural diversity.
Keywords: surfactants, biosurfactants, bioremediation, microbial cells.

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SEASONAL EFFECT ON BIODEGRADATION OF DAIRY EFFLUENT BY FREE AND IMMOBILIZED BACTERIAL CELLS

S.Chaman and A.Bhardwaj

Abstract: The limitations in the physico-chemical methods make the biological methods favorable alternatives for the removal of pollutants from the industrial effluents. In the present study 9 bacterial strains were isolated from dairy effluent collected from Verka Milk Plant Mohali in two different seasons. Strains A3 and A11were identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. through morphological and biochemical tests. Preliminary experiments with all 9 strains were carried out, using free and immobilized cells. Highest COD (39.18% and 28.17%) and BOD reduction (40.54% and 58.33%) were obtained by two isolates, A3 and A11 respectively (The initial COD concentration was 177.6 mg/l and 185.6 mg/l and reduced to 108 mg/l and 133.3 mg/l and the initial BOD concentration was 37 mg/l and 39.6 mg/l and reduced to 22 mg/l and 16.5 mg/l). The electrical conductivity, salinity were found to increased to a considerable extent by A11 and A3 while total dissolved solids were found to decreased to a considerable extent by A3 and increased by A11. Maximum reduction was observed from bacterial isolate of November as compared to August due to the seasonal effect.
Key words: biodegradation, dairy effluent, immobilized cells, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp.

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ESTABLISHMENT OF THE EFFECT OF DIGESTATE PRODUCED IN ANAEROBIC DEGESTION OF MIXTURE OF PIG MANURE AND WASTED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Elena Zlatareva, Svetla Marinova, Rositca Toncheva, Vera Petrova, Snezanka Mihailova

Abstract: Production of large amounts of wastes threatens the environment. The effort for their management and usage is part of searching for a way for reduction of pollution and mitigate the climate change. The interest in biogas production from organic waste is great. Usage of biogas replaces natural sources for energy production. This reduces emissions of CO2, CH4, NO2 and contributes to reduction of global warming. The secondary biomass (digestate) represents a valuable fertilizer, which is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and micro elements and can be used in agricultural practices as organic reserve.
The aim of present study is to determine the effect of digestate derived from model installation for biogas production with addition of pig manure and waste from markets as a feedstock in greenhouse experiments.
Different percentage participation (5, 15, 25 and 35 %) of digestate from the weight of soil is tested. The experiments are conducted on two different soil types ľ Fluvisols and Vertisols. The test indicator is winter barley crop. The results show that barley has the best growth and quality in the variant with 25 % digestate.
Key words: bioslÓme, biogas, greenhouse experiments, barley.

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A MATHEMATICAL STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF METHANOGENIC AND HYDROGENOTROPHIC STEPS ON BIOMETHANE PRODUCTION FROM ORGANIC WASTES

Ivan Simeonov, Alexander Kroumov

Abstract: Anaerobic digestion is an effective biotechnological process for treatment of different organic waste with production of biogas. In this paper the performed mathematical analysis of the behavior of a bacterial consortium during biomethane synthesis is presented. A new pathway of biomethane production was studied based on the metabolism of hydrogenotrophic bacteria where up to 30% of biometane can be synthesized. The other group involved in biomethane synthesis were recognised as acidoclastic methanogenes and based on their metabolic activity up to 70% of biometane produced can be achieved. The model analysis was focused on balance equations of biomethane production where microbial kinetics in the liquid phase was focused on the above mentioned metabolic pathways, and how microbial consortia responded to the high organic loads and changes of dilution rate. The simulation results with the model have shown very interesting findings when high organic loads were applied and can be used for off line process optimization.
Key words: anaerobic digestion, biogas, mathematical model, simulation

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INERTIA INFLUENCE ON MPPT OPERATION OF A WIND TURBINE WITH DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR

Vladimir Lazarov, Zahari Zarkov, Ludmil Stoyanov

Abstract: This paper presents a study on the influence of the mechanical inertia on the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of a wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator. The models of system elements are presented and the control systems functions are described. The realized Matlab model is validated with experimental bench with a dSPACE microprocessor system. The inertia moment influence is studied by different simulation, illustrated by different figures of the system variables and we conclude that the construction realization has to provide a compromise between the MPPT control stability and the influence on the electrical grid.
Keywords: Wind generator, maximum power point tracking, inertia influence

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INTENSIFICATION OF BIOETHANOL MANUFACTURING AND ITS IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENTAL

Anton Stoyanov and Kantcho Lahtchev

Abstract. Bioethanol is an important renewable energy source and its use as a biofuel is largely encouraged by the countries of the European Union, including Bulgaria. The object of this paper is bioethanol produced from starch containing sources, designated as bioethanol first generation (1G-bioethanol).  Recent achievements toward intensification of its manufacturing and impacts on environmental and society are reviewed and discussed. Data concerning properties of bioethanol as car fuel together its worldwide distribution and consumptions are presented. The necessity of enlargement of bioethanol production and various approaches for improvement and increasing of its manufacturing are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid on fermentation as main production process and methods of modern biotechnology used for genetic manipulation of distillery yeasts. The impact of 1G-bioethanol on environment and its contribution for solving of fuel problem are discussed also.
Keywords: bioethanol first generation, yeast, fermentation, sustainability, environment

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