EEEP 3-4/2014

CONTENTS

 

 

Editor's comment

I. Simeonov          3-4

I. Human and biosphere

Influence of the mobile telecommunications networks on the human health

H. Angelov, M. Lyubenova           5-10

Experimental and theoretical research of noise emitted by merchant ships in the port

H. Draganchev,   M. Georgiev, B. Mihailov          11-18

Registration of floods and fires using MODIS

M. Dimitrova, R. Nedkov          19-24

Influence of some feeders on contamination of Struma river

A. Sotirov, D. Mawlood, N. Pistalov, R. Vezenkova, M. Yerusalimova, L. Stanchev, T. Rasulski, S. Savova            25-32

Acoustic design using the theory of quasi-cylindrical sound waves

N. Nikolov, G. Trapov, M. Mazhdrakov, D. Benov            33-38

Posttreatment microbial biodegradation of liquid products of various organic substrates in the world and in the conditions of orbital flight

V. Ilyn, D. Korshunov             39-44

II. Microorganisms and environment

Thermodynamic prognosis for assessing the role of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in biogeochemical cycles of iron and carbon

V. Govorukha, O. Tashyrev              45-54

Variation in light-temperature conditions affects pigments and extracellular polysaccharide production by Rhodella Reticulata

J. Ivanova, L. Kabaivanova              55-60

Antibacterial activity of organically grown tomatoes: juice, puree, tissue and seeds

A. Tomov, A. Doycheva, G. Satchanska            61-67

III. Ecomonitoring

Crop condition assessment on a test site in Northeast Bulgaria using satellite data

V. Vassilev, E. Roumenina                68-75

Lidar detection of unusually high aerosol loading of the atmosphere and of extraordinary seasonal Saharan dust incursions over Sofia

A. Deleva                 75-85

Mineral content of the river sands in Kyustendil region with ecologigal risks for the quality of soils, water and building materials

O. Vitov, A. Sotirov                 86-93

IV. Forest biology

Post-irradiation effect on survival and diameter growth of 40 years old progeny of Norway spruce populations in Bulgaria

A. Alexandrov, E Nedkova                 94-98

Results from fertilization of scot pine stand on brown forest soils

S. Bogdanov                 99-104

V. New projects

Practical recommendations for acoustic design of transport noise barriers

D. Benov, J. Toshkov, M. Karakolev                105-116

VI. Scientific forums

Thirteenth congress of microbiologists in Bulgaria with international participation (7-10 October 2014, Tryavna, Kalina Palas hotel)

A. Galabov, H. Najdenski                 117-118




























INFLUENCE OF THE MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS ON THE HUMAN HEALTH

Christo Angelov, Mariyana Lyubenova

Abstract: The problem of the influence of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on human health was treated. The existing studies and existing legislation were also analyzed. More research and tests are absolutely necessary to determine not only the limits of radiation from the base stations in their transmission area, but also the restrictive norms and standards for mobile devices and creating hygienic norms and rules for the use and possession of mobile phones of the human population in this area. This will make possible to prevent the occurrence of environmental problems or future environmental catastrophe.

Key words: mobile phones, electromagnetic radiation, human health, environment

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EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL RESEARCH OF NOISE EMITTED BY MERCHANT SHIPS IN THE PORT

Hristo Draganchev,   Milcho Georgiev, Boris Mihailov

Abstract: Assessing the level of noise emitted during the passage of vessels in the rivers and canals in the aquatic environment and the impact on settlements near to ports as required by the EU hasntbeen performed on a local level (in Bulgaria). The analysis of existing standards and local legislation shows that there aren't any local provisions for the emitted noises from vessels. Directive 2002/49/ of the European Parliament and Council of Europe [1] defines the overall approach for avoiding and restricting the harmful effect of different global noise sources (not local ones). In this respect, Directive 2002/49/EC is not treating individually the ship noise impact to the environment. Other EU Directives are covering the ship noise issues, as sources. (as Directive 2003/44/ re. recreational ship crafts, and as well Directive 2006/87/ covering the technical requirements for water crafts). Directive 2006/87/ defines limit values for moving ships in 25 m distance from ship line, i. e. 75 dB(A), and respectively of stationary ship 65 dB(A). As sub-law in Bulgaria there is a document called Regulation No. 2 (from the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources). This regulation is defining different environmental noise limit values, tailored for different geographical acoustical zones, but not covering exposure to individual moving or stationary ship along the rivers and canals, as well as during their stay in ports. The paper reveals the results from conducted experimental studies and modeling of noise emission on a multi-purpose cargo ship 8000 t dW.

Key Words: Noise emission in the environment, modeling and evaluation of noise, noise measurement.

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REGISTRATION OF FLOODS AND FIRES USING MODIS

M. Dimitrova, R. Nedkov

Abstract. In this paper we present the possibility for identification of floods and fires using spectral reflection characteristics of different objects based on the MODIS data. We present the differences in reflection characteristics of different objects during such events.

Key words: floods, fires, satellite data, MODIS, spectral reflection characteristics

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INFLUENCE OF SOME FEEDERS ON CONTAMINATION OF STRUMA RIVER

Anton Sotirov, Dana Mawlood, Nikola Pistalov, Rositsa Vezenkova, Mihaela Yerusalimova, Lachezar Stanchev, Thomas Rasulski, Siana Savova

Abstract. During the study the following parameters were measured on terrain: radiation of the water and the common radiation background; acidity of the water (pH); water and air temperature (t, C); electrical conductivity (EC); total dissolved sulfur (TDS); free, total and combined chlorine Cl; cyanuric acid CYS; total alkalinity CaCO3; free, total and combined copper Cu; iron Fe; nitrate NO3- and nitrite NO2-. The following conclusions were figured out: Novoselska River is contaminated around the illegal dumpsites with yanuric acid, copper and high carbonate content; Banshtitsa River is relatively clean with relatively high carbonate content and salinity, which could be explained with natural processes and human activity, related with illegal dumping of building materials in the river bed; Bistritsa River is contaminated with washing chemicals and has high carbonate content; Struma River and its feeding rivers have increased conductivity which probably is a natural process because of the low water level during the period of study. The temperature of the water of Banshtitsa River is relatively high because of the big amount of hot mineral water inflowing into the river. The disinfectants and the detergents in Struma River are in high concentrations. Total alkalinity is high, which might be explained with the low level of rivers and carbonate rocks river bed. The copper in the water of Bistritsa and Novoselska rivers is relatively high, which might cause contamination in case of systematic irrigation of agricultural lands.

Key words: environmental monitoring, water contamination, Struma River, chemical parameters, river sediments, anthropogenic detritus

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ACOUSTIC DESIGN USING THE THEORY OF QUASI-CYLINDRICAL SOUND WAVES

Nikolay Nikolov, Georgi Trapov, Metodi Mazhdrakov, Dobriyan Benov

Abstract. In acoustics are considered two models of propagation of sound waves - from a point or line source. In the first case, the noise energy is distributed in the form of a sphere, and in the second - as a cylinder of infinite length.

This finding contradicts the field measurements in urban environments and the results of laboratory experiments. Therefore, in 1984 N. Nikolov defines a new class of sound waves as a quasi-cylindrical. Physically, the quasi-cylindrical sound waves are generated by in phase emitting stacked point sources. Therefore, with limited number of sources, can be expected that the waves have properties similar to spherical, and in any number of sources - of the tubular.

Keywords: quasi-cylindrical sound waves, acoustic design, sound wave propagation

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Posttreatment microbial biodegradation of liquid products of various organic substrates in the world and in the conditions of orbital flight

Ilyn V.K., Korshunov D.V.

Abstract. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of purification of liquid products of biodegradation of organic substrates using aerobic bacteria and fungi during in microgravity conditions. The study was conducted in 2013 in space flight on the board of Bion-M1 biosatellite and a specialized bioreactor, designed to carry out the fermentation, was used. Methodology for purification of substrates remaining after biodegradation of crop residues (carrots and cabbage) used aerobic mesophilic cultures Pseudomonas esterophilus ECM-1736D, Paracoccus denitrificans VKM B-1324, Achromobacter parvulus ECM-1541D and Stenotrophomonas maltophila VKM B-591 of the Russian Collection of Microorganisms and culture fungi.

Keywords: biodegradation, aerobic bacteria, organic substrates, Bion-M1 satellite

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THERMODYNAMIC PROGNOSIS FOR ASSESSING THE ROLE OF Fe(III)-REDUCING BACTERIA IN BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES OF IRON AND CARBON

Vira Govorukha, Oleksandr Tashyrev

Abstract. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations spreading of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in ecosystems characterized by different complexes of extreme factors was experimentally confirmed. Obtained results indicate on the potential impact of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria to biogeochemical cycles of carbon and energy in natural ecosystems. Thermodynamic prognosis of microbial metabolism regulation can be used to increase the efficiency of biotechnologies of iron extraction from mines and purification of water from iron compounds.

Key words: thermodynamic prognosis, Fe(III)-reducing  bacteria, natural ecosystems, biotechnologies.

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VARIATION IN LIGHT-TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS AFFECTS PIGMENTS AND EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY RHODELLA RETICULATA

Juliana Ivanova and Lyudmila Kabaivanova

Abstract: Light intensities and different temperatures play crucial roles in affecting pigments and carbohydrates content of the red microalga Rhodella reticulata. The total extracellular polysaccharide increased with increasing the photon flux. Its quantity was 0.25 mg ml-1 at 18C and 260 μE m−2 s−1 and increased up to 0.40 mg ml-1 at 34C at 260 μE m−2 s−1 and 0.45 mg ml-1 at the same temperature and 520 μE  m−2 s−1 light intensity as an answer to the extreme conditions. At 34C, at both light intensities, the quantity of the polysaccharide is highest, as a defensive mechanism of the cell. The light and temperature conditions also affect the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments of the alga. Decreased quantity of chlorophyll a was established at increasing light intensity. Its content in the temperature optimum 26C, decreased by 1.8 - fold at 520 μEm−2 s−1 due to photoinhibition. Variation in these parameters could lead to increased production of a desired bioproduct.

Key words: Rhodella reticulata, irradiance, temperature, pigments, exopolysaccharide

Abbreviations: EPS-exopolysaccharide; PBP-phycobiliproteins

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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ORGANICALLY GROWN TOMATOES: JUICE, PUREE, TISSUE AND SEEDS

Alexander Tomov, Anna Doycheva, Galina Satchanska*

Abstract: In this study different organically grown bulgarian tomato varieties Bull's heart, Rose, Ideal and Sorrentino have been studied in order to evaluate their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Experiments were conducted via agar diffusion method. 0.1 ml of test microorganisms at concentration 1x109 CFU/mL were spread on Nutrient agar plates. Test strains  - the Gram(-) Escherichia coli No 8751 and the Gram(+) Bacillus subtilis No8752 were delivered from the  National Bank for Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (NBMCC), Bulgaria. Raw and heat treated tomato puree were loaded in perforated in agar wells while the tissue slices and seeds were placed on the agar surface. Samples were cultivated at 37oC for 24 hours and further the diameter of the sterile zones was measured. Our results revealed that the tomato puree diplays antibacterial activity towards both B. Subtilis and E. coli. The raw tomato puree disposed wider inhibition zones compared to the dried one. Tomato seeds showed inhibitory effect only against B.subtilis and none towards E. coli. The antibacterial activity of tomato tissue slices was similar to those of the seeds. In conclusion, the strongest antibacterial effect was displayed by the raw tomato puree. Among the two  varieties Ideal showed higher activity. The obtained results demonstrated that bulgarian organically grown tomatoes contain antimicrobial substances and could be used as prospective source of novel antimicrobial agents.

Key words: antibacterial activity, organically grown tomatoes, natural puree, heat treated puree, seeds, tissue

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CROP CONDITION ASSESSMENT ON A TEST SITE IN NORTHEAST BULGARIA USING SATELLITE DATA

Vassil S. Vassilev, Eugenia K. Roumenina

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to investigate the crop condition based on per-pixel supervised classification on SPOT-5 HRG satellite image, acquired on 21.04.2011 for Zhiten test site situated in Northeast Bulgaria. The methodology of this article includes the following working stages: 1) applying arable mask from CORINE 2006 land-cover database; 2) conducting per-pixel supervised classification using the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) algorithm for crop identification; 3) applying accuracy assessment tool in ERDAS Imagine and deriving accuracy totals and kappa statistics; 4) conducting crop condition assessment based on cluster analysis and derived NDVI image on each identified class individually. The overall classification accuracy is 86.51% and overall kappa statistics is 0.7996. The presented research shows the big potencial using 10m. spatial resolution satellite image for crop condition assessment, which is the preliminary step for precision agricultural practices.

Key words: agriculture, crop identification, accuracy assessment, crop condition assessment

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LIDAR DETECTION OF UNUSUALLY HIGH AEROSOL LOADING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND OF EXTRAORDINARY SEASONAL SAHARAN DUST INCURSIONS OVER SOFIA

Atanaska D. Deleva

Abstract. This work presents results of LIDAR investigations of the atmosphere over Sofia. The measurements are performed on days for which dust transport from Sahara has been forecast. The aerosol loading of the atmosphere on such days are described as "extraordinary/unusual" because they are statistically highly improbable due to two reasons: 1). An extraordinary in altitude aerosol loading is registered of the troposphere from the ground up to altitudes of 11-15 km. 2). Events of dust transport from Sahara during autumn and winter are unusual. The results point to the permanent risk of pollution of the atmosphere with dust particles.

Key words: lidar, laser remote sensing, Saharan dust, aerosols, troposphere

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MINERAL CONTENT OF THE RIVER SANDS IN KYUSTENDIL REGION WITH ECOLOGIGAL RISKS FOR THE QUALITY OF SOILS, WATER AND BUILDING MATERIALS

Oleg Vitov, Anton Sotirov

Abstract. Mineral content of the sands from the rivers in Kyustendil region, Bulgaria has been a subject of investigation of the heavy minerals in samples for 50 years with d to prospecting of gold and poly-metal ores. The results of these investigations are presented in heavy minerals maps and are organized in data base. One part of the established minerals are toxic as cinnabarite (HgS; PbS; PbCO3; PbSO4; Pb; MnO2; ZnS; CuCO3; FeCuS; AsFeS; Cu) and radioactive minerals (zirconium, monazite, apatite,  thorite, columbite). The maps which are presented in the study show areas with potential contamination of the soils and water with toxic and radioactive elements. Present investigation pays attention on potential danger about using of building materials without cleaning for heavy, radioactive and mercury minerals. Data for contamination of water of the Novoselska River is presented.

Key words: sands, mineral contents, contaminants, water, soils

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POST- IRRADIATION EFFECT ON SURVIVAL AND DIAMETER GROWTH OF 40 YEARS OLD PROGENY OF NORWAY SPRUCE POPULATIONS IN BULGARIA

Alexander H. Alexandrov, Elena Nedkova

Abstract: In 1973, when a purposeful transfer of definite genes was still not used for forest tree species, an acute irradiation with gamma- rays of cobalt- 60 (⁶⁰Co) was applied on seeds of Picea abies ( L.) Karst. populations from Rila Mt., Pirin Mt., the Rhodopes, the Balkan range and Vitosha Mt. with the purpose of adapting their progenies  towards the climate change and the appearance of any diseases and pests. Norway spruce seeds by individuals and stands in full- seed year 1971 were irradiated with doses of 200 rad, 500 rad, 1000 rad, 1500 rad and 7500 rad in March 1973 and were sown in the same year in an experimental field near Govedartsi of Rila mt. at altitude of 1250 m.

The analysis of data on survival and growth in diameter of trees at age 40 show the following results:

The dose of 500 rad causes a stimulation effect with 10 % on survival of 40- years- old spruce trees obtained from irradiated seeds. The positive post- irradiation effect on survival of trees tends to better adaptation.

The dose of 500 rad provokes a depressed effect with 15 mm on growth in diameter of spruce trees in 2013, obtained from irradiated seeds. Nevertheless, the growing stock of this sample plot is slightly bigger by reason of greater part of survived trees.

The post- irradiation effect on survival and growth of Norway spruce is unpredicted but a dose of 500 rad for most individuals and populations has definitely a positive response on survival.

Keywords: post- irradiation effect, Picea abies (L.) Karst., survival, growth.

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RESULTS FROM FERTILIZATION OF SCOT PINE STAND ON BROWN FOREST SOILS

Simeon Bogdanov

Abstract. The paper presents results from fertilization experiment of scot pine stand (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Brown Forest soils (Distric-Eutric Cambisols, FAO). The growth changes of the stand have been investigated. The sample plots are set up according to the variants of fertilization. They are situated in the Middle Mountain forest belt (700 2000 m altitude) of the Tracian forest area. The contents of humus, total nitrogen and soluble forms of phosphorus and potassium have been determined. The changes in pH have been established.  

Key words: fertilization, brown forest soils, humus, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH, growth, Pinus sylvestris L.

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PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACOUSTIC DESIGN OF TRANSPORT NOISE BARRIERS

Dobriyan Benov, Josif Toshkov, Mihail Karakolev

Abstract. The experience gained from the design and construction of transport noise barriers is allowing us to make certain recommendations. They can not cover all possible cases, but we believe that it will be useful for practical activities of specialists in this field.

Design of transport noise barriers is a complex engineering task in which solution the effect of factors of different nature - physical processes and phenomena, urban planning and landscape-planning practice, specific regulations for design and construction experience must be taken into account . Derived formulas takes into account the impact of the most significant of these factors. In some cases the decision must comply with the specific situation, by enriching the model.

Keywords: transport noise barriers, acoustic design, practical recommendations

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