evaluation of digestate from anaero¬bic biodegradation
with other soil improvers
E. Zlatareva, P. Ivanov, S. Marinova, I. Simeonov, S. Mihailova 119-123
review of the shale gas problem
A. Sadovski 124-133
Industrial terraforming of the planet due to using of chemical sources of energy (oil, shale gas, coal, and wood)
O. Vitov 134-141
An opinion of A. Sadovski 142
Prof. Metodi Tsvetanov at age of
Eighth Balkan congress of microbiology Microbiologia Balkanica ’2013 144
RISK EVENTS RELATED TO CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE SOUTH STREAM GAS PIPELINE
ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION AND COMPARATIVE EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM ROAD TRANSPORT IN URBAN AREAS OF BULGARIA
SURCH FOR LIFE ON MARS AND PROJECTS FOR MANNED FLIGHTS
Tania Ivanova, Ivan Dandolov
Abstract: In recent decades, interest on the study of Mars is constantly increasing and numerous space probes and robotic devices are sent towards the Red Planet for life forms search and potential colonization in the near future. A brief overview of the results obtained by direct measurements of environmental parameters and monitoring of extremely harsh conditions on the surface of Mars is done. Recent studies of the chemical and mineral composition of rocks by the Curiosity rover reveal, that there are adequate conditions for the existence of microorganisms. Despite the inhospitable environment of the planet, projects are developed for sending manned missions to Mars and even their settlement there. The recent discovery of large reserves of frozen water beneath the surface will facilitate enormously the task. Projects for sending humans to Mars, on different programs are briefly described: to land on Mars and go outside the lander for research, then return to the Earth (Mars-500), go around Mars, without landing (Inspiration Mars) and one-way trip to Mars for settlement in pre-built biosphere complex, providing the necessary conditions for life and work (Mars One).
Keywords: Life on Mars, Humans to Mars, Mars Colonization
TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTIONS AND SPACE MONITORING
Abstract: In the paper some exemples of transboundary air pollutions in Bulgaria for the first half of 2012 are presented. The basic sources of pollution are considered and a satellite photos of registered hazardous events are presented.
Key words: transboundary air pollution, hazardous events, space monitoring
SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT FOR CELL CULTIVATION UNDER INDUCED MICROGRAVITY CONDITIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Yordan Naydenov, Nadezhda Stefanova, Tania Ivanova
Abstract: One of the main problems arising in long-term orbital missions are the delayed wound healing and the reduced synthesis of bone matter, leading to a reduction in bone density – processes associated with dysfunction of connective tissues. The need for studies of the behavior of biological objects under microgravity increases with the advancement of space technologies and plans for future long-term manned missions to Mars. Studies with cell cultures may be carried out also on Earth, in conditions close to weightlessness, by use of microgravity simulating devices (Random Positioning Machines). The first Bulgarian scientific equipment – two-axis clinostat for cell cultivation under induced microgravity conditions was developed. The system was adapted to study the effects of microgravity on pre-formed in vivo-like three-dimensional cultures of fibroblasts. Test experimental research of the interaction cell-extracellular matrix was made and initial results were discussed.
Keywords: induced microgravity, two-axis clinostat, Random Positioning Machine
INDUSTRIAL MEASURES FOR NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION
Abastract. Nitrous oxide N2O is a greenhouse gas under the Kyoto Protocol. The production of nitric acid has a very high potential for releasing nitrous oxide emissions which makes it one of the main industrial sources of N2O. According to literary sources measures for reduction of N2O emissions at nitric acid production are grouped into 4 categories: primary measures, secondary measures, tertiary measures and sequential (end-of-pipe) techniques. A survey of the efficiency of the industrial measures for nitrous oxide emission reduction has been done referring to the necessity of implementing such measures in order to fulfil the European Union’s commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and to achieve the ambitious aim of reducing global greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50 % below their 1990 levels by 2050.
Key words: nitrous oxide, reduction measures, greenhouse gases, nitric acid production
RICE HUSK: WASTE OR A VALUABLE RAW MATERIAL. POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS TO THEIR UTILIZATION
Snejanka Uzunova, Ivan Uzunov
Abstract. The article presents a short overview of the state of art in the methods for conversion of rice husks into carbon/silicon containing value added materials. Were presented and part of the results related to the authors’ investigations in this area. Possibility of establishing a flexible flow sheet for complex processing of rice husks is indicated.
Keywords: rice husk; combustion; pyrolysis; hydrolysis; white ahs; silica; carbonaceous materials
PORTABLE LIDAR SYSTEMS FOR AUTO-TUNING OF THE CONTROLLING ELECTRONICS OF WIND TURBINES
Stoyan Penchev, Vasilka Pencheva, Luben Mihov
Abstract: The paper reports an application of portable lidar systems to the control of the efficiency of contemporary wind generators. Commercial Doppler lidars are of the most perspective targets for determination of wind speed and direction. A growing number of wind-generator farms feature prospects of greater contribution to ecologic renewable sources in the sector of energy production. Simultaneously, the development of lidar technology reduces the dimensions and cost of such system, as well, increases their rigidness and reliability. A solution of the problem of real-time processing of lidar signals is presented. For the purpose, algorithms are developed for complementary digital filters on the basis of digital signal processors (DSP). Comparative simulations are conducted for determination of the efficiency of electronic noise filtering in the detector system. As a result, the noise level is reduced below the informative signal by more than 40 dB.
Keywords: wind generators, Doppler lidar, noise reduction, neural networks
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIGESTATE FROM ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION WITH OTHER SOIL IMPROVERS
Elena Zlatareva, Plamen Ivanov, Svetla Marinova, Ivan Simeonov, Snejana Mihailova
Abstract: Soil is an ecological system that has a global impact on the biosphere. She participated in the cycle of substances and energy in nature and supports the composition of the atmosphere. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the main nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (general and mobile quantities) and toxic elements contained in the classical manure, sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and digestate from biogas production from pig manure and wasted fruits and vegetables at different rates. Quality assessment of various wastes is associated with opportunities for their use in agricultural practice to maintain and improve soil fertility and crop yields.
Keywords: biogas, digestate, pig manure, sludge from WWTP
INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE SHALE GAS PROBLEM
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to make an independent review of the evidence on the use of shale gas. The author was Deputy Director General of the Environmental Research and Information Centre of the Ministry of Environment in the period 1987 -1992, and the head of the EU PHARE Environmental sector programme. As a leading expert from the Bulgarian side has participated in the development of the Environmental Strategy of Bulgaria together with a team from the World Bank and the U.S. Agency for Environmental Protection. Author of the UDF Environment Programme (1991) and he is convinced that NGOs, environmental clubs and other social forces can play an important role with respect to the active development of new environmental ethics and conduct public control over the activities of executive power. Simultaneously, it is necessary to take into account scientific evidences and new scientific and technical developments in other countries.
Key words: Energy, Shale Gas, Environmental Protection.
INDUSTRIAL TERRAFORMING OF THE PLANET DUE TO USING OF CHEMICAL SOURCES OF ENERGY (OIL, SHALE GAS, COAL, AND WOOD)
Abstract: Results from geometrical and physical modeling of expected changes of the Earth after entire melting of the continental glaciers due to global warming are presented here. It is obtained raising the level of the ocean with +72 m, slowing of the speed of rotation of the Earth with 2 sec per twenty-four hours, absorbing by the crust of potential energy equivalent to 16,3.109 [Kt] trotyl equivalent. That energy is 21000 times more than the energy enough to tear the Earth crust. Variants of the changes depending on different speed of melting of the glaciers are discussed. Solutions to limit the damage by use of non-chemical energy are offered. It is concluded that to improve the chances of survival of civilization and the planet is necessary to develop nuclear and thermonuclear power and achieve massive reforestation of the planet. Evidence for the occurring of such processes in the geological history of the Earth are specified.
Key words: global warming, level of the ocean, the rotation speed of the Earth