EEEP 3/ 2018
H. Najdenski 3-4
I. MAN AND BIOSPHERE
M. Mladenov 5-16
Zh. Radev 17-22
A. Sotirov, D. Mawlood, N. Pistalov, S. Savova, R. Vezenkova, V. Sotirov 23-30
II. ECOLOGICAL AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
S. Marinova, N. Kathijotes, E. Zlatareva 31-37Decision support system for irrigated crops growers
A. Sadovski, I. Christov 38-45
G. Antonova, H. Boteva, K. Sirakov, I. Palov 46-52
III. FOREST BIOLOGY
S. Bogdanov 53-57
IV. ECOLOGICAL LEGISLATION
T. Andreeva–Nesheva 58-68
Assoc. Prof. Ivan Simeonov at the age of 70 69-70
Abstract. Tourism as one of the priority sectors of the country is becoming increasingly important for successful economic development of the settlements. The present work analyzes the opportunities for development of tourism in compliance with ecological and natural conditions. The route of the Pod Kamiko tourist trail (Gara Bov village, Svoge municipality) is considered. This route has a preserved natural environment, poorly developed anthropogenic activity and is rich in natural, cultural, and historical landmarks. Key features are presented in order to assess the opportunities for development of ecotourism and the changes after the construction of the tourist trail in 2012. The report also shows the results of the SWOT analysis before the construction of the trail and after a five-year period. A survey on the influence of the route on tourism and the development of settlements as well as the changes in the profile of tourists are also presented.
Key words: Bov; recreation; eco-tourism; pedestrian walking route; SWOT analysis
REGISTERING THE POLLEN-GIVING PLANTS FOR HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) BY USING POLLEN TRAPS
Abstract: In this study, the pollen pellets were collected by using pollen traps in a three year period, and the pollen-giving flora were determined. The analysis in the area give that, the bees have visited 113 species of honey plants from 101 genera and 46 families, which indicates a relatively high number and variety of honey plants. Their blooming periods are described. About 75-80% of the visited plants are nature vegetation. Agricultural and introduced plants occupy about 20-25% of the established honey plants in the area. Family Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rosaceae, have the largest number of pollen sources. The weed and meadow flora provide a great diversity of pollen with different nutritive value, needed for the normal development of the bee colonies. This shows the need for the existence and preservation of uncultivated flora as a source of food for bees. The overuse of herbicides and many other negative anthropogenic factors must be limited, which are the main reason for the reduction in the species diversity of wild honey plants. The use of pollen traps gives precise results about visited and pollen-giving plants.
Key words: pollen, pollen traps, honey plants, honey bee, Apis mellifera L.
Anton Sotirov, Dana Mawlood, Nikola Pistalov, Siana Savova
Abstract. According to this study, the new terrain, determined for cemetery of town of Kyustendil, Bulgaria is suitable for this activity, according to the Bulgarian low and EU directives for cemeteries. The terrain is distanced on a minimum of 300 m from the living and public properties from South and it is distanced of about 150 - 200 m from industrial buildings from the North. The terrain has inclination of the slope opposite to housing complexes. There are not observed erosion and landslides as well as sources of drinking water. Flooding of the terrain is not observed too. The underground water is deeper than 5 meters as according to drilling companies the its level is about 25-30 m. As a result of the study the terrain was determined as suitable for cemetery activities.
Key words: cemetery, geology, ecology, assessment risk
Svetla Marinova, Nicholas Kathijotes, Elena Zlatareva
Abstract: One of the important reasons for reducing the fertility of arable soils in our country is the acidification to a harmful degree for crops. The classic approach for improving the fertility of acid soils is a neutralization of toxic acidity for plants by introducing lime materials - liming. Besides, the presence of large quantities of waste materials with neutralizing properties requires their utilization. The main objectives of the study are to characterize the calcium carbonate precipitate (lime sludge) and ash wood, which are waste materials from the production of "OGNYANOVO K" Ltd., to study their neutralizing potential and possibilities for use as ameliorants on soils with various acidic properties. Agrochemical, chemical and physico-mechanical analyses revealed that both materials have a large neutralizing capacity, slightly greater of the lime sludge and do not contain harmful substances that can have a negative impact during their use as ameliorants of acidified soils.
Key words: acid soils, lime materials, calcium carbonate precipitate, ash wood
Alexander Sadovski, Ilia Christov
Abstract: Against the background of climate change, which reduces water availability in many areas of the world, every year the global Agriculture, the world's largest user of the planet's water resources, spends a huge amount of water without achieving optimal crop yields. Finding a universally applicable way to ensure the efficient use of irrigation water in agriculture is a real business need and its successful transformation into a fully functional automated decision support system is a technology that can lead to creation of a product, which will be a novelty for irrigation management. The article describes a comprehensive technology that allows scientific management of the state of irrigated crops for virtually any agricultural field that has been tested in long-term field trials and brought to the TRL6 software prototype. The structure of the Decision Support System is presented and links between the individual partial mathematical models and their technological relationship with the databases used are shown.
Key words: irrigation, decision support, agrometeorological characteristics, moisture energy
Gabriela Antonova, Hriska Boteva, Kiril Sirakov, Ivan Palov
Abstract: During the period 2015-2016 in the Maritsa VCRI, Plovdiv was carried out a study to determine the effect of electromagnetic treatment of pepper seeds on the quality of seedlings (variety Kurtovska kapia 1). The seeds was treated before sowing with 12 irradiation variants depending on the factors: voltage U (kV), duration of treatment τ (s), time of stay of the seeds from treatment to sowing – days T. Characters for evaluation were - weight (g), height (cm), stem diameter (cm), number and weight of the leaves (g), root length (cm) and weight (g), total plant weight (g).
The best effect is shown in variant treated with a voltage of 6 kV for 20 s and time of stay 4 days. The plant were with 23.46 cm height, 4.1 mm diameter; number of leaves 8,94 root length 8.8 cm and total plant weight 8.42 g (56.2% towards the control).
Key words: electromagnetic treatment, pepper seedlings, seedlings quality
Abstract. The paper presents results from investigation on Brown Forest soils (Dystric - Eutric Cambisols, FAO 2006). They are situated in the Middle forest vegetation zone (700 – 2000 m a.s.l.) of the Thracian forest vegetation area. The factors of soil formation have been characterized and the soil silvicultural properties have been analyzed. Special attention is paid to the influence of relief elements - altitude, slope and exposition on soil fertility. Soil profile structure has been described. The content of humus, total N and soil available water have been determined. The results are processed by statistical program. The arithmetic averages (M) and variation coefficients (Cv%) have been calculated. The data obtained show significant differences in soil silvicultural properties depending on terrain exposition. Conformity between soil properties and forest productivity has been established.
Key words: brown forest soil, factors of soil formation, relief, exposition, soil silvicultural properties.
Abstract: Today the European environmental policy drives in the right direction, but still mainly due to economic reasons, it stays insufficiently integrated and applicable. Attempts to further extent the environmental policies to the new pollution factors, to integrate them into other policies and to correct wrong market mechanisms were realized, but unfortunately, failed to deliver all the desirable results. The lack of a more stringent policy and regulation on the issue of electromagnetic pollution at EU level is problematic. The current approach raises questions about the (non)adequate application of the main principles of the environment policy. The main shortcomings in the European environmental policy, related to the electromagnetic pollution, are associated with the lack of enough regulation on a common European level, limited scope of the legislation, lack of requirements for comprehensive and unified monitoring, integrated assessment communication system and risk management. The new EU Framework Programme Horizon 2020 provides financial resources and must be used more efficiently to study more systematically the negative impacts of electromagnetic fields on human health and environment in a long term, which would provide the basis for the regulatory changes to be established at the EU level.
Keywords: electromagnetic pollution, non-ionizing radiation, environment, European legislation