EEEP 3-4/ 2022
H. Najdenski 3-4
Silicium – the element of plant and
I. Atanassova, Z. Petkova, A. Sadovski 5-12
Construction of electrical infrastructure near the habitats of protected bird species – Part II. Existing practices and regulations
G. Stoilov, N. Nikolov, D. Stoilov 13-28
II. RENEWABLE AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES AND BIOFUELS
Biogas and biogas technologies. Part 1. Introduction and state of the art
I. Simeonov 29-44
III. FOREST ECOLOGY AND BIOLOGY
Soils in natural coniferous forests in Bulgaria
S. Bogdanov 45-55
Assessment of soil fertility in aronia (Aronia Melanocarpa) growing in forest areas
S. Savev, S. Bogdanov 56-62
Forest plantation influence on silvicultural properties of soils affected by forest fires
S. Bogdanov 63-67
IV. ECOLOGICAL AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
To the issue of agroecological zoning of Bulgaria
M. Ivanova, A. Sadovski 68-76V. RADIATION ECOLOGY
A setup for filling of HPGe detector dewars
N. Petrov, N. Gutev, H. Protohristov, S. Genchev, N. Lakov, D. Tonev 77-81
50 years Bulgaria space country
T. Ivanova 82-88
25th anniversary of the National Society for Environmental Engineering and Environmental Protection 89-92
Louis Pasteur – life and scientific work devoted to humanity (dedicated to the 200th anniversary of his birth)
H. Najdenski 93-104
Prof. Alexander Sadovski at the age of 85 105-106
VII. SCIENTIFIC FORUMS
16-20 May 2022, Sofia 107-108
Current and future ways to closed life support systems – MELiSSA Foundation and European Space Agency Conference 109-110
VII. NEW BOOKS
Challenges for Circular Economy & Sustainable Living in Space and on Earth (EIC/ESA White Paper) 110-118
SILICIUM – THE ELEMENT OF PLANT AND HUMAN HEALTH
Irena Atanassova¹, Zdravka Petkova¹, Alexander Sadovski²
¹ ISSATPP "N. Poushkarov"
Abstract: The article presents a new view of the element silicon (Si) as important for plant and human health. It is the second most abundant element in the earth after oxygen. Until now, it has been considered a "non-useful plant nutrient", but its absence in the soil leads to the death of plants. Based on field fertilizer experiments with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and silicon derived with maize on two contrasting soils in Bozhurishte and Tsalapitsa, and laboratory analyzes of soluble and exchangeable silicon in soils, it is concluded that silicon is an important factor related to maximum productivity and the resistance of plants to adverse environmental factors. A review of extensive literature testifies to the importance of silicon to human health and its normal content in the human body is the natural key to full-fledged health. Silicon compounds have been found to be able to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease and block aluminum toxicity. The need for agrochemical analysis of silicon in the soil along with other essential nutrients is emphasized.
Keywords: silicon, field experiment, agrochemical analysis, health, Alzheimer's disease.
Georgy Stoilov¹, Nikola Nikolov², Dimo Stoilov²˒³
¹ Energy consultant
² Technical University of Sofia³ Institute for Nucleare Researches and Nucleare Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Abstract: The article is the second one in
a series dedicated to the problems on building and
infrastructure near the habitats of protected bird
species. This second article
outlines the existing practices and regulations
regarding the operation,
construction and improvement of electrical networks
from point of view of the
protection of large bird species and their habitats.
An analysis of these
practices and regulations is performed, and possible
measures for their
improvement are proposed. Gaps have
been identified, which are largely related to the lack
of synergy between the
separately introduced measures, which are mainly of a
infrastructure, electrical power lines, securing, impacts
on birds, practices, regulations..
BIOGAS AND BIOGAS TECHNOLOGIES, PART 1. INTRODUCTION AND STATE OF THE ARTIvan Simeonov
Abstract. This paper is the first part of a series of articles on the anaerobic digestion of organic waste. It presents: the biochemistry and microbiology of the main processes based on the basic four-step scheme; main physico-chemical factors affecting these processes (temperature, ph, etc.); advantages and disadvantages of biogas technologies; the current level of development of biogas technologies and its potential. Some perspectives for further development of biogas technologies are also mentioned.
Keywords: anaerobic biodegradation, biogas, methane, biogas technologies
SOILS OF NATURAL CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN BULGARIASimeon Bogdanov
Abstract. Soil fertility is a major factor for the existence, development and normal functioning of forest ecosystems. The natural coniferous forests are an important part of the Bulgarian forest resources. They provide fundamental protection of soil and water resources as well as multiple ecosystem services, cultural and spiritual values. The paper presents the characteristics of the main soil types in natural coniferous forests on the territory of Bulgaria. The forest vegetation and the forest soils are in constant interaction. The analysis of this interaction determines the directions for restoration, protection and improvement of soil fertility, as a condition for increasing the productivity of plantations and rational use of forest resources.
soil, soil properties,
ASSESSMENT OF SOIL FERTILITY IN ARONIA (ARONIA MELANOCARPA) GROWING IN FOREST AREAS
Slavcho Savev, Simeon Bogdanov
Forestry University, SofiaAbstract. Aronia melanocarpa is naturally distributed in the forest belt on dry and stony soils in open and light areas in the temperate zone of eastern North America. In the conditions of the forest territories in Bulgaria, it is grown in plantations in different parts of the country. Cultivation of aronia in forest areas is directly related to the soil characteristics. The paper presents an analysis of soil fertility in accordance with the specific requirements of the Aronia melanocarpa species, as a basis for analyzing the effective use of soil resources as a means of production in forestry. The object of the study are plantation of Aronia melanocarpa. Soil depth, content of humus, total nitrogen, soluble forms of phosphorus and potassium, soil available water, pH and soil texture have been determined for assessment of soil fertility. The results show a relation between soil fertility and the productivity of Aronia melanocarpa forest plantations. Restoring and increasing the productivity of forest plantations must be in accordance with soil characteristics and requires differentiation of the soils on the base of their fertility in each specific region.
FOREST PLANTATION INFLUENCE ON SILVICULTURAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS AFFECTED BY FOREST FIRES
Forestry University, SofiaAbstract. The forest fires cause destruction of vegetation and soil degradation. Coniferous forests, and in particular, coniferous stands of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) in the lower parts of the country are the most often affected. The lack of conditions for successful natural restoration of the forest in these stands, it is necessary to be made artificial afforestation. The paper presents results from investigation on forest plantation influence on silvicultural properties of soils affected by forest fires in Bulgaria. Gray Forest soils (Gray Luvisols) and Cinnamonic Forest soils (Chromic Luvisols) have been investigated. The sample plots are set up in forested and unforested control areas. They are correspondingly situated in the Lower forestry zone (0 – 600 m) of the Misian forestry area and the Lower forestry zone (0 – 700 m) of the Tracian forestry area. It has been established that the improvement of soil fertility depends to the greatest extent on the accumulation of organic matter under the tree stands and its transformation, which provides the reserves of humus, nitrogen, and soil available water.
Maria Ivanova¹, Alexander Sadovski²
¹ ISSATPP "N. Poushkarov"
Abstract: The present study proposes a new approach to the agroecological zoning of the country, which is based on the yield of agricultural crops as an integrating indicator of the many factors - soils, climate, topography, agricultural practices, etc. The research data is based on the average yields of the main crops: wheat, barley, maize and sunflower for the period 2000-2019 by statistical regions. The method for the agroecological zoning of Bulgaria based on the average yields of the specified main crops uses the computer systems Precisely MapInfo and Golden Software SURFER. From the obtained results, it can be seen that the soil and climatic conditions in the regions of Northern Bulgaria (mostly the regions of the North-Central and North-East regions) and those of the South-East region of South Bulgaria are the most suitable for growing wheat. For maize, these are the regions of Northern Bulgaria - mainly the regions of the North-Central and North-Eastern regions, and of Southern Bulgaria - the South-Central region. Northern Bulgaria and the South-Eastern region of Southern Bulgaria are suitable for growing barley. The regions of Northern Bulgaria and especially the regions of the North-West and North-East regions are suitable for sunflower.
Keywords: agroecological zoning, yields, wheat, barley, maize, sunflower.
Nikolai Petrov¹, Nikolai Gutev¹, Hristo Protohristov¹, Stefan Genchev¹, Nikolay Lakov², Dimiter Tonev¹
¹ Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
² University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski”Abstract: The most advanced analytical instrument of modern radioecology is the gamma spectrometer with High Purity Ge Detector (HPGe) used for identification of radioisotopes. The HPGe detector works at very low temperatures cooled by a cryostat immersed in a Dewar vessel with liquid nitrogen. Warming of the detector can lead to ireparable damage. Therefore, a reliable liquid nitrogen level is kept in the vessel by regular refilling. This labourious and dangerous activity is avoided by refilling automation. The proposed device generates pressure in a feed Dewar by heating and evaporating liquid nitrogen. The pressure transfers the cooling agent from the feed Dewar to the HPGe Dewar and continuously kept a preset operating level. The device provides reliable operation of HPGe detectors and other equipment and instruments cooled by liquid nitrogen and used in radioecology, biology, medicine, agricultural sciences, space research, etc.
YEARS BULGARIA SPACE COUNTRY
Space Research and
Technology Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of
Abstract: The “Intercosmos” program gave Bulgaria the unique opportunity to participate in space research with its own scientific equipment. On 1 November 1969, a Group of Space Physics with young professionals, headed by the academicians L. Krastanov and K. Serafimov, was created to the Presidium of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Its exceptional task was to design the first Bulgarian space equipment. On 1 December 1972, the first probe device (P-1) for direct measurement of ionosphere plasma parameters was launched successfully onboard the satellite “Intercosmos-8”, and Bulgaria became the 18-th country on the list of “space states”. By the end of 1981, a large number of Bulgarian probe equipment for direct study of the ionosphere and upper atmosphere were developed and launched onboard the satellites “Intercosmos-12, 14 and 19”, “Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300” and the geophysical rockets “Vertical-3, 4, 6, 7 and 10”.
Keywords: Intercosmos Program, “Intercosmos-8” satellite, space probe device, ionosphere plasma