EEEP 2/ 2017

CONTENTS

 

Editor's comment

Hristo Najdenski                            3-4

I. SPACE TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

Space monitoring of anthropogenic impacts on soils and the water environment associated with solid domestic waste: scientific and educational aspects (Space environmental watch)

Mihail Shakhramanyan, Maretta Kazaryan, Andrey Richter                                5-12

Monitoring of short-lived snow coverage by radar and optical data from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 satellites

Temenuzhka Spasova, Roumen Nedkov                             13-19

Integrative assessment of the Haskovo regions lands in terms of environmentally sensitive to desertification areas

Daniela Avetisyan, Roumen Nedkov, Emiliya Velizarova                             20-30

Monitoring on forest ecosystems by using space-temporal analysis of different types aerospace data

Andrei Stoyanov, Denitsa Borisova                              31-37

II. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND BIOFUELS

Study of electrogenic properties of microflora of mud masses obtained from various biotypes

Aleksey Tyurin-Kuzmin, Vyacheslav Ilyin, D. Korshunov, A. Punegova, Ju. Suprunova                          38-45

III. MAN AND BIOSPHERE

Noise measurement with smart device and external microphone basics, accuracy and applications

Dobrian Benov, Diyana Benova                           46-52

IV. NEW DEVELOPMENTS

The effect of mixing modes on biohydrogen yield and spatial pH gradient at dark fermentation of solid food waste

Hanna Tashyreva, Oleksandr Tashyrev, Vira Govorukha, Olesya Havryliuk                                53-62

Biopreparations for the production of environmentally safe food - part I

Tatiana Nugmanova                            63-69

Biopreparations for the production of environmentally safe food part II

Tatiana Nugmanova, Lyubov Chistyakova, Iion Petra, Olga Shelepova, Vera Kondrateva              70-74


 

 

























SPACE MONITORING OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON SOILS AND THE WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATED WITH SOLID DOMESTIC WASTE: SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS (SPACE ENVIRONMENTAL WATCH)

Shakhramanyan M. A., L. Kazaryan M. L., Richter A. A.

Abstract. A new technology of monitoring and control of solid waste, based on the reception and processing of the Earth remote sensing data with different spatial resolution and spectral resolution is proposed. The technology is based on the processing of multispectral and hyperspectral images from space in special software products, the identification and analysis of solid waste from small (suburban, road clutter) to large (industrial and urban landfills), depending on the spatial and spectral resolution of the space image. At present, software complexes for processing (deciphering) of space images of solid domestic waste and their adjacent territories have been developed.

With the help of these software complexes, it became possible to identify unauthorized landfills, to determine the correctness of operation of existing landfills in accordance with existing regulatory documents, to determine the sequence of liquidation of various landfills, depending on the degree of their negative impact on the environment and human health.

The introduction of the proposed technology can provide substantial assistance to various ministries, departments and the public in detecting at an early stage the places of clutter, the so-called pre-landfills, which, if not to take preventive measures, can become real garbage dumps with all the ensuing environmental problems.

It is important that schools and universities, for which this work will be attractive both in terms of planning and implementation of research activities, education of young people with an active life position in terms of ecology and environmental protection, be included in the implementation of the "Space Ecological Watch" project.

It should be borne in mind that SHW landfills are basically "the reactors" in which various physical-chemical reactions (combustion, oxidation, etc.) are rapidly occurring; besides SWLs are of considerable interest for educational and research processes both in secondary and higher schools. Moreover, many parameters of these physical-chemical reactions in the time-mode, close to the real one, can be controlled by methods of remote sensing of the Earth from space.

We propose to organize the International Competition "Space Environmental Watch" with the participation of students and schoolchildren from different countries of the world. This Competition will be based on the technology described above, will have the following nominations: - identification of unauthorized landfills; - landfills Information validity check; - assessment of the impact of solid waste landfills on the environment. According to the results of the competition, a digital map with identified unauthorized garbage dumps and an assessment of their impact on the environment can be made on the Internet.

Kew words: landfill object, SHW landfill, garbage dump, metasubject, MatLab, educational process, training modules, teaching activities

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MONITORING OF SHORT-LIVED SNOW COVERAGE BY RADAR AND OPTICAL DATA FROM SENTINEL-1 AND SENTINEL-2 SATELLITES

Temenuzhka Spasova, Roumen Nedkov

Abstract: Snow cover monitoring shows the great importance of this rainfall, the time-lines of the data from this event, and the spatial range and area of the observed object.
The main aim of the presented research is to trace the use of different satellite data and approaches to track the dynamics of the development of the short-lived snow coverage.
The subject of the study is short-lived snow coverage and its dynamics for 12 and
13 March 13, 2017 for Sofia city area, Bulgaria. The objects were analyzed and mapped according to ESA data, acquired by sensors Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 MSI.
Results have been obtained for quantitative changes of wet snow cover and its dynamics. The data used are with a high time-spatial resolution, which is imperative when it is need to study a short-lived event such as the wet snow coverage.
The importance of this monitoring is that the remote sensing and reliable data required calculating models of climate, natural disasters and crashes have been obtained.

Keywords: snow cover, radar satellite data, microwave range, optical range, Sentinel-1 SAR, Sentinel-2 MSI.
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INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE HASKOVO REGIONS LANDS IN TERMS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE TO DESERTIFICATION AREAS

Daniela Avetisyan, Roumen Nedkov, Emiliya Velizarova

Abstract. Desertification is the consequence of a set of important processes which are active in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid environments, where water is the main limiting factor of land use performance in ecosystems. Located in dry sub-humid environments of South-Eastern Bulgaria, Haskovo Region is distinguished with  a significant lack of humidity in growing period reaching up to 700 mm. Landscapes in Haskovo Region exhibit different sensitivity to desertification for various reasons mainly determined by the characteristics of their components and how they react to changing environment. The various types of sensitive to desertification landscapes can be distinguished and mapped by using certain key indicators for assessment of the land capability to withstand further degradation. These factors can be divided into four broad categories defining the qualities of soil, climate, vegetation, and management (stressor indicators). The aim of the resent study is to identify main characteristics of landscape components and to delineate territories with lands resistance to degradation processes in terms of desertification. Remote sensing methods and GIS were used.

Keywords: Land degradation, desertification, GIS, remote sensing

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MONITORING ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS BY USING SPACE-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT TYPES AEROSPACE DATA

Andrei Stoyanov, Denitsa Borisova

Abstract: The following work presents results derived by space-temporal analysis of different types of aerospace data for environmental monitoring on the dynamics of the condition of the forest vegetation.

Different indices (NDVI, NDWI) and indicators have been used for territories occupied by different types of forest ecosystems. A comparative analysis between optical and radar images have been conducted and results about the degree of correlation between the different generated indices from the tested areas are presented.

Based on the performed different analysis and surveys and the results derived from them, an evaluation can be done for the following: for which territories occupied by specific forest vegetation are the most sensitive indices during the monitoring.

The derived results could be used for monitoring and ecological assessment on forest resources management in regional and national action plans.

Keywords: forest monitoring, satellite images, NDVI, SAR, environmental monitoring

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STUDY OF ELECTROGENIC PROPERTIES OF MICROFLORA OF MUD MASSES OBTAINED FROM VARIOUS BIOTYPES

Tjurin-Kuzmin A.Ju., Ilyin V.K., Korshunov D.V., Punegova A.V., Suprunova Ju.V.

Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are an environmentally friendly way of generating electricity, which is often accompanied by the decomposition of organic waste. A common problem for these devices is the low power generated by the electric current. In nature, the decomposition of organic waste, coupled with oxidation-reduction reactions, i.e. the transfer of electrons and protons formed during the decomposition is carried out by microbial communities, which, in their optimal state for this process, are called active sludge (AS). A mature active sludge consists of a so-called flocculium - round formations in the size from 30 to 100 and more microns, inside of which microorganisms carrying out various reactions of decomposition of organic substances are contained. It is easy to see that the MFC design is topologically similar to the active sludge flocculant. We tried to check how the presence of microorganisms in the water chamber affects the productivity of the MFC by filling the anode and cathode chambers with the same sludge mixture, and the test cells were shaken on a shaker to create favorable conditions for the formation of microbial communities. The active sludge cell in both chambers shaken on the shaker, over time, generated the highest voltage in the external circuit as compared to the control samples. The obtained data confirm the legitimacy of the assimilation of MFC flocculine AS. The evolution of the microbial community of the silt mixture in two directions - in the aerobic and anaerobic MFC chambers - apparently leads to the formation of two different communities mutually complementing each other as part of the MFC and improving the operation of the MFC, subject to additional dynamic provision (shaking). The effect of the addition of peptone to the anode chamber on the productivity of MFC was also investigated. The periodic addition of peptone significantly increased the output power of the MFC cell. Apparently, substrates of protein nature, representing a nutrient medium for electrogenic bacteria, can be used to stimulate the electrogenic activity of the microflora of late anaerobic silt.

Key words: microbial fuel cells, biofuel elements, activated sludge, flocculum, nitrate respiration

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NOISE MEASUREMENT WITH SMART DEVICE AND EXTERNAL MICROPHONE BASICS, ACCURACY AND APPLICATIONS

Dobriyan Benov, Diyana Benova

Abstract: The noise level is measured by instruments called noise meters. In this paper, we look at the possibility of using smart devices with an external microphone instead of noise meters. We explore and compare types of smart devices, external microphones, and software. Their accuracy is compared to professional certified tools. The possibilities for their application in different situations are examined and recommendations are made.

Keywords: smart device, external microphone, noise measurement

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THE EFFECT OF MIXING MODES ON BIOHYDROGEN YIELD AND SPATIAL PH GRADIENT AT DARK FERMENTATION OF SOLID FOOD WASTE

Hanna Tashyreva, Oleksandr Tashyrev, Vira Govorukha, Olesya Havryliuk

Abstract. Dark fermentation of multicomponent solid food waste by soil hydrogen-producing bacterial community was studied in horizontal batch reactor under different mechanical mixing modes; speed of mixing (rpm) and frequency of mixing (duration mixing and pause) were selected as target for optimization. Addition of pH indicator bromothymol blue to the culture liquid allowed to study patterns of formation of acidification zones in solid/liquid/gaseous fermentation system. It was detected that mixing speed can contribute to sustainable maintenance of optimal pH values and prevent formation of spatial pH gradient. Adjusting of mixing and pause duration resulted in significant decrease of digestion cycle and increase in volumetric hydrogen production rate. Established optimal mixing mode 24 rpm, 10 min of mixing/20 min of pause provided biohydrogen yield 123 LH2 kg-1 TSadded and reduction in the concentration of total suspended solids from 70 to 0.75 g/L in 4 days.

Key words: dark fermentation, mixing, biohydrogen, spatial pH-gradient, food waste, suspended solids

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BIOPREPARATIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE FOOD Part I

Tatiana Nugmanova

Abstract: Russian biopreparations cover almost all aspects of the problem of growing plants. The history of development and implementation of industrial large-scale production of biopreparations in Russia goes back more than 40 years. Biopreparations have a purposeful action and are divided into the following main types: bioinsecticides, biofungicides, biofertilizers, immunomodulators and regulators of plant growth and development, as well as land-fertilizing biopreparations. The variety of Russian biopreparations can fully ensure the implementation of the potential varietal properties of agricultural plants, minimize damage from adverse weather conditions, reduce the cost of chemicals, restore soil humus and obtain environmentally friendly food.

Keywords: biotechnology, biopreparations, plants, ecology, biofungicides, growth biostimulators, bioinsecticides, industrial production

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BIOPREPARATIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE FOOD ˗ Part II

Tatiana Nugmanova, Lyubov Chistyakova, Iion Petra, Olga Shelepova, Vera Kondrateva

Abstract. The effectiveness of the bio fertilizer NIKFAN - one of the main biopreparations used in the Biologization System - was studied. This is a new modern biopreparation, which proved to be very effective for cultivating various crops in open and closed ground. In this article, as an example, the results of its application for cultivating cucumber in greenhouses are provided. The influence of the Nikfan biopreparation on the elasticity of leaves and the content of chlorophyll in them has also been confirmed.

Key words: biopreparation, vegetables, cucumber, growth stimulation

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