EEEP 2/2015

CONTENTS

 

Editor's comment
I. Simeonov                   3-4

I. ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY

Isolation, identification, morphological and adhesion properties of microorganisms from antarctic soils and lichens

M. Dimitrova, S. Etem, K. Jordanova, N. Chipev, Ts. Ignatova-Ivanova                   5-11

II. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Novel technical and economical superior approach for synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash

D. Zgureva, S. Boycheva                           12-18

Construction of a new shuttle vector PZT1 applicable to hosts Escherichia coli and the ethanol producing Zymomonas mobilis

L. Popova, K. Petrov, P. Petrova                       19-23

III. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Biotechnology of wastewater treatment with the effective removal of nitrogen due to the participation of anammox-bacteria, developed for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi

A. Nozhevnikova, Yu. Litty, M. Zubov                    24-29

Monitoring of atmospheric methane employing dial scheme on powerful pulsed laser diodes

S. Penchev, V. Pencheva, L. Mihov                         30-34

IV. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND BIOFUELS

Power generation using modified cathodes in air-cathode microbial fuel cell

B. Midyurova, B. Bonev, V. Nenov                         35-40

V. SPACE TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

Forest vegetation state and dynamics in the Haskovo region (Bulgaria) – a research based on vegetation indices, climate and solar activity data

D. Avetisyan, R. Nedkov, D. Gotchev                             51-61

VI. FOREST BIOLOGY

Cone scales shape and relative position of different Norway spruce provenances at an experimental plantation

A. Alexandrov, P. Popov, E. Nedkova                            52-58

VII. AGROECOLOGY

Systemic induced plant resistance as a control strategy to parasites alternative to pesticides

Zh. Udalova, Sv. Zinovieva                           59-66

Non-foaming film reactors for production of biopesticides

I. Nikov                             
67-78

























ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, MORPHOLOGICAL AND ADHESION PROPERTIES OF MICROORGANISMS FROM ANTARCTIC SOILS AND LICHENS

M. Dimitrova, S. Etem, K. Jordanova, N. Chipev, Ts. Ignatova-Ivanova

Abstract. In the present study we present the results from the isolation and study of microorganisms from Antarctic soils and lichens. The soil and lichen samples were gathered from the Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. For the isolation of the different microorganism, different nutritious media were used. The isolated microorganisms were macro-morphologically and micro-morphologically studied. We also investigated the adhesion properties of defined microorganisms by using the SEM system JSM 5510. Our results demonstrated that the Antarctic continent is a habitat for a diversity of species of microorganisms despite the harsh living conditions. Some of the investigated species showed very good adhesion properties. Isolation of DNA was carried out by the company Progen LTD–Sofia using the Thermo Scientific Gene JET Genomic DNA Purification Kit.  The DNA samples will be used for the exact species identification of the microorganisms. A databank including full inventory of the isolated species will be created.

 Keywords: Antarctica, Livingston Island, microorganisms, adhesion properties, SÅÌ JSM 5510.

up

Novel technical and economical superior approach for synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash
Denitza Zgureva, Silviya Boycheva

Abstract. The present paper is aimed on the preparation of zeolites from lignite coal fly ash using a superior synthesis approach that combines the advantages of different established technological schemes. The novel method is directed to improvement of the energy efficiency and the raw material economy, and at the same time resulting in better quality material. Fly ash zeolites of Na-X type were synthesized applying fusion stage of fly ash/NaOH mixtures followed by atmospheric self-crystallization. The obtained zeolite structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction for different periods of crystallization of the reaction mixtures under atmospheric conditions. Comparative studies of three different methods for synthesis of Na-X were performed taking into account the specific energy and the raw material consumption. It was considered that adsorbents of zeolite X type can be obtained by different ways of alkaline conversion of coal fly ash, and that is why the most important issues for the scale production of these materials are the economical aspects of the synthesis.

Keywords: synthesis of zeolites; adsorption; carbon emissions

up

CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW SHUTTLE VECTOR PZT1 APPLICABLE TO HOSTS ESCHERICHIA COLI AND THE ETHANOL PRODUCING ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS

Luiza Popova, Kaloyan Petrov, Penka Petrova

Abstract. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium with high potential to produce ethanol via fermentation of glucose, sucrose or fructose. The need for broadening of its substrate spectrum requires the development of suitable host-vectors systems for gene cloning. Here we report the construction of a new shuttle vector, applicable to hosts Escherichia coli DH5α and Zymomonas mobilis DSM424. It was based on pCR2.1-TOPOTM (E. coli) and contained the amplified and cloned replicon fragment (dso ori and repA gene) of 2.7 kb plasmid of Z. mobilis. As a reporter gene, cloned under Plac promoter control, was used amyBL encoding α-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis strain 44MB82/G. The obtained results revealed good stability of the shuttle vector pZT1 in both hosts, as E. coli DH5α possessed also a high amylase activity due to the extracellular expression of the reporter gene. Z. mobilis DSM424 was able to maintain the shuttle vector, but amyBL was very poorly expressed, thus indicating that Plac promoter is rather not suitable for gene expression in this organism.

Key words: Shuttle vectors, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Amylase

up

BIOTECHNOLOGY OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH THE EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF NITROGEN DUE TO THE PARTICIPATION OF ANAMMOX-BACTERIA, DEVELOPED FOR THE 2014 WINTER OLYMPICS IN SOCHI

A.N. Nozhevnikova, Yu.V. Litty, M.G. Zubov

Abstract. The process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is carried out by newly discovered anammox bacteria. They have a number of morphological, physiological and biochemical properties that other bacteria lack. For use on construction sites of the Winter Olympics 2014 in Sochi, there has been developed a new biotechnology of wastewater treatment with immobilization of microbial activated sludge and efficient removal of nitrogen with the participation of anammox-bacteria, and has been created a compact, environmentally friendly wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) prefabricated in block structures. The principles of the new technology and the design of full-scale 100-1000 m3/day "BCH-ECOS" plants were based on the results of laboratory-scale microbiological studies and experimental-industrial trials that have confirmed the application perspectives of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). The new technology involves a pretreatment of incoming raw water by coagulation in order to precipitate the suspended solids. A significant part of phosphorus compounds is being precipitated at the same time. Aerated water, high in nitrate and nitrite, is recycled from the last corridor of aeration tank into the denitrifying reactor, which is located at the beginning of biological treatment and receives ammonia-rich water. Conditions for the development of nitrogen removing denitrifying and anammox-bacteria are thereby created in the anaerobic denitrifying bioreactor. Brush-shaped carrier is applied at all stages of biological treatment for immobilization of active microbial sludge. Treated water passes through the dense brush-shaped carrier filters and granular anthracite filters.  The quality of the treated water exceeds the requirements for discharging into water bodies.

Key words: anammox-bacteria, effective nitrogen removal, biotechnology of wastewater treatment, immobilized activated sludge

up

MONITORING OF ATMOSPHERIC METHANE EMPLOYING DIAL SCHEME ON POWERFUL PULSED LASER DIODES

Soya Penchev, Vasilka Pencheva, Luben Mihov

Abstract. DIAL method is proposed for determination of the abundance of atmospheric methane. The spectral properties of laser radiation of high- power pulsed laser diodes are optimised within the molecular absorption bands of 1.55- 1,625 mm of this major greenhouse gas. The characteristic broad laser line of the selected laser diodes modulated by the selected explicit absorption spectrum is explored by computational convolution based on HITRAN reference data on spectral linestrengths. The lidar scheme is ultimately compact, of low- energy consumption and suggests a large potential for ecological monitoring.

Keywords: Ecological monitoring, atmospheric methane, powerful laser diodes

up

POWER GENERATION USING MODIFIED CATHODES IN AIR-CATHODE MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

Blagovesta Midyurova, Bogdan Bonev, Valentin Nenov

Abstract. The microbiological fuel cell with air cathode is a promising alternative for sustainable power generation, improvement the MFC construction and elimination of external electron acceptors of chemical nature. Protons, electrons and  oxygen from air reacting at the cathode produce molecules of water.

The work reports development of different kind cathodes based on the usage of membranes (VITO), PTFE, activated carbon and carbon cloth. The experiments with different cathodes were developed of comparison their ability to generate electricity in a single-chamber MFCs in batch mode. Maximum voltage is obtained as follows: 289.8 mV by using PTFE: AC=40:60 and 179.1 mV by using PTFE: AC = 20:80, respectively.

Key words: microbial fuel cells, air- cathode

up

FOREST VEGETATION STATE AND DYNAMICS IN THE HASKOVO REGION (BULGARIA) – A RESEARCH BASED ON VEGETATION INDICES, CLIMATE AND SOLAR ACTIVITY DATA
Daniela Avetisyan, Roumen Nedkov, Deyan Gotchev

Abstract.The climate changes and the anthropogenization have been a prerequisite for development of negative trend processes during the last decades, which has resulted in degradation of vegetation and deforestation in particular. This leads to alternation of landscape structure and statement of landscape components. Simultaneously, these processes are accompanied by changing of heat–moisture ratio in landscapes, and continuously running drought processes. Aim of the present study is to trace the climatic condition in the region for the period from 1987 to 2013 and to study their impact on the state and dynamics of the forest vegetation. Variations in the activity of specific geoeffective components of solar activity can be considered as one of the possible factors causing vegetation cover degradation, drought, and desertification. In order to achieve this goal Remote Sensing and GIS methods are applied and widely recognized indices as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDWI (Normalized Difference Water index) and VCI (Vegetation Condition Index) were calculated. Possible correlations with solar activity are studied.

Keywords: Vegetation indices; remote sensing and GIS; climate data

up

CONE SCALES SHAPE AND RELATIVE POSITION OF DIFFERENT NORWAY SPRUCE PROVENANCES AT AN EXPERIMENTAL PLANTATION

Alexander H. Alexandrov, Peter Popov, Elena Nedkova

Abstract: Norway spruce at an experimental plantation Govedartsi- Rila mountain in Bulgaria is characterized with typical parameters of length and width of cone scales and very low variability of their average indicators. Cone scales shape indices are described as like these with big variability within provenances and some less variability between provenances.
According to cone scale form indicators all provenances are closer to “reference” Norway spruce populations from the Eastern Carpathians than to “reference” Siberian spruce populations from Eastern Siberia. The Romanian provenances observably are distinguished by bigger sharpness of cone scales and bigger closeness to “ reference” populations of Norway spruce. The influence of altitudial position of provenances on cone scales parameters is not determined.

Keywords: Norway spruce, provenances, cone scales shape, Squared Mahalanobis Distances.

up

SYSTEMIC INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE AS A CONTROL STRATEGY TO PARASITES ALTERNATIVE TO PESTICIDES

Zhanna Udalova, Svetlana Zinovieva

Abstract. Biogenic elicitors induce systemic resistance of plants to  plant parasitic  nematodes  -  Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera rostochiensis ( decrease in the parasitic invasion of the roots;  an inhibition of the vital activity of the parasite;  a decrease in fertility and the amount of agents sources (larvae and eggs) capable of infecting the plants). The addition of signal molecules (salicylic and jasmonic acid) to elicitors increased their activity as immunomodulators. In present investigation the mechanisms of induced plant resistance  nematode were studied. The data obtained suggest that the mechanisms natural and induced by biogenic elicitors  tomato resistance to the nematode have the same origin. These features meet all requirements of the new generation of methods of plant protection and the use of biogenic elicitors to raise plant resistance to parasitic nematodes may be promising. Key words: nematodes, systemic acquired resistance, elicitors, signal molecules, chitosan,  salicylic acid, jasmonic acid
up

NON-FOAMING FILM REACTORS FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOPESTICIDES

Iordan Nikov

Abstract. Biological treatment through the use of natural molecules has presented as an ecofriendly alternative. Here, we focus on the versatile utilization of Bacillus subtilis based products, more especially the lipopeptides surfactin and fengicin, as biopesticides. The present work proposes two types of reactors for surfactin and fengicin production or its mixture and some examples of direct applications of these lipopeptides. Free and immobilized cells were used. It was demonstrated that kLa (oxygen transfer coefficient) is the key parameter controlling the productivity and the selectivity of the bioreaction. Varying the oxygen transfer conditions, the synthesis could be oriented to mixed production or to surfactin/fengycin mono-production. The fraction of surfactin towards total lipopeptides produced and the maximal surfactin production both increased with kLa increase (surfactin concentration about 2 g /l at kLa = 0.04–0.08 s-1), while the maximal fengycin production (fengycin concentration about 0.3 g/l) was obtained at moderate oxygen supply (kLa = 0.01 s-1).

Key words: biopesticides, surfactin, fengicin, disk reactor (RDR), inverse fluidized bed, kLa

up