EEEP 2/2013

CONTENTS

 

 

Editor's comment
I. Simeonov               3-4
I. Human and biosphere

Establishment of pollution from livestock breeding in the region of Veliko Tarnovo

Svetla Marinova, Dimitranka Stoicheva, Plamen Ivanov, Vera Petrova, Viktor Kolchakov, Hristina Pchelarova                    5-10

Lidar monitoring of the aerosol atmospheric load above Sofia

Atanaska Deleva                    11-20

Lead toxicity in humans: a review

Galina Satchanska                    21-29

II. Microorganisms and environment

Comparison of salt stress tolerance of antarctic mosses

N. Matvieieva, O. Kvasko, V. Duplij, Yu. Luchakivskaya, K. Drobot, M. Kuchuk                   30-38

Regularities of metal resistant microorganisms` distribution in natural ecosystems

O. Tashyrev, I. Prekrasna, G. Tashyreva, N. Matvieieva, P. Rokitko, V. Romanovskaya                      39-50
III. Renewable energy sources and biofuels

Comparative study on the anaerobic co-digestion of wasted fruits and vegetables at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions

Ivan Simeonov, V. Hubenov, D. Denchev, Snejanka Mihajlova                      51-60
IV. Forest biology

Soil acidity changes in soils of class Luvisols influenced by forest fires

Simeon Bogdanov                      61-67

V. New projects
Monitoring system of pilot scale bioreactor for anaerobic digestion of organic wastes
Elena Chorukova, Ivan Simeonov                 68-72
VI. Ecological projects

Project 2007—¬161–ő006-2011-2-19:
Strengthening the cross-border territorial com-peti¨tiveness and economic development in Nish and Jablanica (Serbia) and Sofia (Bulgaria) regions through efficient utilization of regional resources in the area of renewable energies use with stress on biomass employment                 73-74




























ESTABLISHMENT OF POLLUTION FROM LIVESTOCK BREEDING IN THE REGION OF VELIKO TARNOVO

Svetla Marinova, Dimitranka Stoicheva, Plamen Ivanov, Vera Petrova, Viktor Kolchakov, Hristina Pchelarova

Abstract: Environmental pollution is an integral part of the global ecosystem disturbances in the transfer of matter and energy and is inextricably connected with pollution of water and atmosphere. Unusual changes occurring in soils that alter its participation in the biological cycle are generally denoted as contamination. Particular contaminant effect has the livestock breeding in connection with increased demand for animal products and increasing population. The aim of present paper is to present the contamination effect of livestock breeding in the region of Veliko Tarnovo, as a part of international project, connected with the management of waste from stock-breeding and opportunities for biogas production. According to own research for quantitative and chemical characteristics of different types of waste and animal groups is established pollution effect as organic matter and organogenic elements in 14 livestock farms in the region of Veliko Tarnovo. The most rational of agrochemical and sanitary point of view is usage of waste in agricultural practices for maintaining and improving of soil fertility, for reclamation of disturbed and less productive lands, for composting, etc. Requirements of EU for searching of renewable energy sources direct the farmers to use organic fertilizers from stock-breeding, horticulture and household as a source for biogas production.
Key words: pollution effect, waste, livestock farms.

up

LIDAR MONITORING OF THE AEROSOL ATMOSPHERIC LOAD ABOVE SOFIA

Atanaska Deleva

Abstract. Lidar investigations of the troposphere, made over the city of Sofia, are described. Lidar measurements are performed with an aerosol lidar equipped with Nd:YAG laser. Lidar data are presented in terms of the vertical atmospheric backscatter coefficient profiles and color maps of the aerosol stratification time evolution. Conclusion about atmospheric aerosolís origin was made upon analyses of the information of weather-forecast maps provided by the Forecast system, according to Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) of Barcelona Supercomputing Centre. Additional information was provided by calculations of the backward air mass trajectories, using HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. All information about aerosol layers origin, their altitude above ground, persistence during lidar observations, confirmed the conclusions of observation of a long-distance Sahara dust transport, a smoke from the forest fires in Vitosha mountain (03 July, 2012) and thick urban aerosol layers over Sofia.
Key words: lidar, aerosols, Saharan dust, fire smoke, anthropogenic aerosols, troposphere

up

LEAD TOXICITY IN HUMANS: A REVIEW

Galina Satchanska

Abstract: Lead is one of the best recognized toxic environmental pollutant with the longest use. Environmental lead pollution occurs due to the anthropogenic activities resulting in soil, surface, ground water and air contamination. Lead enters the body via the respiratory and gastrointestinal system. Once entering the food chain it affects the human health. This review summarizes contemporary research on the lead toxicity on human Ė transport into the cell and its deleterious effect on the blood, skeletal, urinary, reproductive, cardiovascular, nervous systems as well as on the prenatal development. Carcinogenesis due to lead action is discussed as well.
Analysis of lead concentrations in soil and water samples from the area of lead-zinc smelter, near the town of Plovdiv, Bulgaria revealed extreme pollution: in soil samples the lead concentrations were 1.7, 12 and 32 times over the Maximum permission limit and in the water samples Ė 7, 34 and 73 times lead concentrations over the Maximum permission limit. As lead persists in the environment for decades the obtained results are disturbing because of lead cumulative health effect.
Key words: pollution, lead, toxicity, human health, lead-zinc smelter   

up


COMPARISON OF SALT STRESS TOLERANCE OF ANTARCTIC MOSSES

Matvieieva N.A., Kvasko O.Yu., Duplij V.P., Luchakivskaya Yu.S., Drobot K.S., Kuchuk M.V.

Abstract. The peculiarities of NaCl effect on the growth of –olytrichum juniperinum Hedw. and Warnstorfia fontinaliopsis Müll.Hal. Antarctic mosses cultivated in vitro were studied basing the number of parameters such as secondary protonema growth, coefficient of reproduction, comparative biomass increasing, photosynthetic pigment synthesis. We also analyzed the possible mechanisms of plant adaptation to salt stress effect such as fructan accumulation, superoxide dismutase activity and general antioxidant activity.
The higher resistance to NaCl (25-100 mŐ) was showed for W. fontinaliopsis plants comparing to –. juniperinum ones, the coefficient of reproduction of W. fontinaliopsis plants in case of comparatively moderate NaCl content (25-50 mŐ) was even higher than in control. W. fontinaliopsis plants unlike –. juniperinum ones reacted the salt stress by the increased fructan synthesis and the increased superoxide dismutase activity.
Key words: –olytrichum juniperinum Hedw., Warnstorfia fontinaliopsis Müll.Hal., Antarctic plants, salt stress
up

REGULARITIES OF METAL RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS` DISTRIBUTION IN NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS

Tashyrev Oleksandr., Prekrasna Ievgeniia, Tashyreva Ganna, Matvieieva Nadiia, Rokitko Pavlo, Romanovskaya Victoria

Abstract. The regularities of metal resistant microorganisms from ecosystems of Western Antarctica (coast of the Antarctic Peninsula), Negev Desert (Israel), Dead Sea region (Israel) and soils of Ukraine were investigated. I was shown, that typical strains and microbial communities are resistant to the high concentrations of representative toxic metals. For example, Antarctic microorganisms are resistant to 1000 ppm of —o2+, 2000 ppm of Ni2+, 1500 ppm of Cu2+, 500 ppm of Hg2+ and 60000 ppm of CrO42-. Quantitative indexes of microbial resistance to metals were investigated: 1) maximum permissible concentrations of metals (MPC); 2) correlation of cells number with the metals concentrations; 3) index —r - the ratio of MPC to the metals local concentration in the ecosystem. Microorganisms interact with metals and withdraw them out of the solutions. The generalized model of microbial metal resistance was created. The model describes regularities of metal resistant microorganismsí distribution in ecosystems. It was shown, that in each ecosystem there are microorganisms resistant to super high concentrations of metals. On the base of theoretical generalization of the obtained data the novel biotechnologies can be created, which will purify concentrated polymetalic industrial wastewater.
Key words: metal resistance, microorganisms, metal wastewater purification

up

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES AT MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC CONDITIONS

Ivan Simeonov, V. Hubenov, D. Denchev, Snejanka Mihajlova

Abstract. Anaerobic co-digestion of wasted fruits and vegetables in continuously stirred tank laboratory and pilot bioreactors at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was investigated. To start the process, wasted fruits and vegetables were added stepwise to the bioreactors treating swine manure in order to avoid the problems during the start-up period. The experiments with various hydraulic rretention ttimes and pulls wise organic load show that the process has been stable and the bacterial community well adapted to the various stress factors.
Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, wasted fruits and vegetable,s mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, biogas, fertilizer

up

SOIL ACIDITY CHANGES IN SOILS OF CLASS LUVISOLS INFLUENCED BY FOREST FIRES

Simeon Bogdanov

Abstract. The paper presents results from investigation on soil acidity changes in soils of class Luvisols influenced by forest fires. Cinnamonic Forest soils (Chromic Luvisols, FAO) and Gray Forest soils (Gray Luvisols, FAO) have been investigated. The sample plots are set up in burned areas and unburned control once. They are correspondingly situated in the Lower forestry zone (0 Ė 700 m) of the Tracian forestry area and the Lower forestry zone (0 Ė 600 m) of the Misian forestry area. Soil samples have been taken nine times for ten years in order to investigate the dynamics and degree of the changes. It was established a relation between pH and soil type, the intensity of the fires and development of vegetation.  
Key words: pH, forest fire, forest soils, Pinus nigra Arn

up

MONITORING SYSTEM OF PILOT SCALE BIOREACTOR FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ORGANIC WASTES

Elena Chorukova, Ivan Simeonov

Abstract. In the paper new monitoring system of pilot scale bioreactor for anaerobic digestion of organic wastes developed in the Institute of Microbiology is presented. The system was developed on the basis of LabVIEW software and includes measurement and registration of conventional hardware and new software sensors (for estimation of specific growth rates of two main bacteria populations). A lot of experimental studies have demonstrated good performances of this system and the possibility for its industrial application.
Key words: anaerobic digestion, pilot-scale bioreactor, monitoring system, software sensors, LabVIEW

up