I. Simeonov 3
I. Human and biosphere
A. Kovachev, N. Nikolov 4-14
S. Velkoski 15-20
P. Stoyanova, M. Dimitrova, R. Nedkov, D. Panayotova, V. Apostolova, M. Zaharinova, I. Ivanova 21-26
II. Ecologization of agriculture
Ň. Ivanova 27-32
III. Technologies for depolution
V. Hubenov, V. Dencheva, P. Pavlov, H. Georgieva, D. Denchev 33-39
I. Simeonov, V. Ilyin, D. Denchev, P. Angelov, L. Starkova 40-49
IV. Microrganisms and environment
K. Tsekova, V. Dencheva, K. Petrov 50-58
N. Stoyanova, E. Popov, A. Delkov, D. Stoyanov 59-67
Key words: atmospheric pollution, satellite and ground data
AND USING OF NATURAL FERTILIZER IN
Abstract: Two of the most important documents of the European water politic – Directives for urban waste-water treatment and for nitrates. The success of these directives depends on the commitment of the member-states to definite their sensitive and vulnerable zones. In realization of the directives are definite nitrate vulnerable zones, and principles of Good agricultural and environmental practices and Program for reduction and eradication of nitrate pollution from agricultural sources in vulnerable zones are confirmed.
Keywords: natural fertilizer, European water policy, Nitrate directive, Good agricultural and environmental practices, nitrate vulnerable zones
Abstract: Experiments for microbial anaerobic digestion of cellulose (filter paper) in mesophilic (34oC) and thermophilic (55 oC) conditions were provided. The metabolic products received in the first phase of the anaerobic degradation process were organic acids, oligosaccharides and presumably hydrogen, all of them transformed afterwards to methane. Independently of the temperature conditions, specific cellulolytic microbial groups, predominating in the thermophilic conditions only, were found in the cultural liquid. The process at the higher temperature was with better technological indexes as well as with higher biogas yields and impossibility of proteolytic microorganism development.
Key words: Mesophilic,
thermophilic anaerobic process, cellulose, biodegradation cellulolytic
DIGESTION OF ORGANIC WASTES AND ITS POSSIBLE USE FOR PILOTED SPACECRAFT
I. Simeonov, V. Ilyin, D. Denchev, P. Angelov, L. Starkova
Abstract: In this paper a possibility of applying anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during piloted spacecraft flights is discussed. In connection with the future piloted space missions to Mars, the problem of utilizing the wastes accumulated on board the spacecraft becomes especially acute. Astronauts use for hygiene needs chiefly napkins and towels on cellulose basis, forming the greater part of the wastes. Another potential part of the wastes represent the uneatable residues of plants grown on board that are degradable easier. For the purpose, microorganisms of the genus Clostridium, capable of functioning in aerobic as well as in anaerobic conditions can be used. The anaerobic digestion is preferable, since the oxygen necessary for the crew is not consumed. The anaerobic processes can be realized by bacteria developing at mesophilic (37°C) or thermophilic conditions (55°C).Keywords: anaerobic digestion, cellulose containing wastes, piloted spacecraft flights, microgravity conditions
INTEGRATED BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM RAW STARCH AND HEAVY METALS REMOVING FROM WASTEWATER
Abstract: Strains of Rhizopus fungi were investigated for lactic acid production from raw starch. R. arrhizus and R. oryzae showed higher biochemical activity for starch conversion to lactic acid and ethanol while R. delemar produced more fungal biomass as a by-product. Growth conditions: 35 g/L starch, pH 6 and 30°C were favorable for both starch saccharification and valuable products formation, resulting in lactic acid yield of 0.71 g/g starch associated with 0.36 g/g ethanol and 0.73 g/g fungal biomass with R. arrhizus as a producer. The ability of waste mycelia to remove Cu, Co, Mn, Ni and Zn ions from single as well as mixed solutions was assessed. The results obtained showed that the waste fungal biomasses may be successfully used as biosorbents for treatment of metal-polluted industrial wastewaters.
CHANGES AND ECOLOGICAL RISK FOR STATUS OF FORESTS IN THE
N. Stoyanova, E. Popov, A. Delkov, D. Stoyanov
Key words: ecology, climate, forest ecosystems, precipitation, drought periods
Absract: The aim of the present investigation was to compare the work time and the productivity of forest skyline Koller 300 in different broadleaved and coniferous forests. There were investigated three road-track situated in Vitosha and Ograjden mountain. The time for carried out of one full road-bed was divided into ten work phases. It was established that independently by the type of the loading wood the most time was consumed for operation ,,Moving of loaded carriage to landing site” - at trace 1 – 53,5 %, ŕt trace 2 – 51,3% and at trace 3-21,0%. In a result of this investigation it was established that the productivity of this type of skyline in deciduous forests was 3,22 m3/ha and in coniferous forest it was 5,91 m3/ha. It can be pointed that the productivity of Koller 300 was better in the coniferous forest.
Key words: Koller K 300, forest skyline, productivity, load