EEEP 1/ 2018
H. Najdenski 3-4
I. TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPOLUTION
V. Ilyin, D. Korshunov, E. Deshevaya 5-23
O. Tashyrev, V. Hovorukha, O. Suslova, H. Tashyreva, O. Havryliuk 24-35
K. Lazarova, V. Mamatarkova 36-44
II. ECOLOGICAL AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
G. Mamedov 45-51Evaluation of composting materials for sustainable agricultural applications
E. Markov, N. Kathijotes, E. Zlatareva, S. Marinova 52-57
V. Ilinkin, D. Dimitrov, P. Zhelev 58-65
A. Sadovski 66-72
III. ECOLOGICAL FORUMS07- 09 June, 2018, Plovdiv, Bulgaria 73-74
BIOTRANSFORMATION OF USED MEANS OF PERSONAL
HYGIENE OF COSMONAUTS AND VEGETABLE WASTE AS APPLIED TO LIFE
SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR SPACE CREWS
Ilyin V.K., Korshunov D.V., Deshevaya E.A.
Abstract: In this paper a possibility of applying anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during piloted spacecraft flights is discussed. The culture of Trihoderma viridae, capable of utilizing cellulose-containing substrates under mesophilic conditions, was studied. The strain was isolated from the internal environment of the ISS. The main purpose of the work was to test the ability of Trihoderma viridae culture to consume the products of anaerobic decomposition of gauze tissue under space flight conditions, i.e. Substrate for the cultivation of the fungus served as liquid media, formed after the decomposition of thermophilic clostridia gauze wipes. Under conditions of space flight, the culture of Trihoderma viridae reduced the total concentration of volatile organic impurities remaining after the biodegradation of gauze from 34 mg / m3 to 5 mg / m3. The number of detectable volatile compounds decreased almost twice. The carried out researches have shown that the post-cleaning of liquid products of hydrolysis of gauze fabric with the help of cellulolytic fungi can be an effective component of utilization of cosmonaut hygiene items with the help of microbial communities in space flight conditions. Also under terrestrial conditions, the liquid products of biodegradation of plant wastes were further purified with the help of a community of aerobic bacteria. Chromatomass-spectrometric analysis showed that the consortium composed of aerobic mesophilic bacteria actively consumed products present in vegetable homogenates.
anaerobic digestion, cellulose containing wastes, Trihoderma viridae,
piloted spacecraft flights, microgravity conditions
tHERMODYNAMIC PREDICTION FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES andVALUABLE PRODUCTS FROM WASTE OBTAINING
Abstract: The aim of the work was to develop effective environmental biotechnologies enabling to stop pollution of environment with a wide range of toxicants and transform them into commercially valuable products. Using the method of thermodynamic prediction algorithm to create new universal environmental biotechnologies was developed. Distinctive features of biotechnologies include: 1. fast and efficient disposal of a wide range of environmentally hazardous waste (decaying food and agricultural waste, synthetic organic compounds, and metal-containing waste water, etc.); 2. increase the efficiency of biotechnologies due to application of selected soil anaerobic microorganisms; 3. obtaining of a wide range of valuable products: gaseous fuels (hydrogen, methane), solid fuel (unfermented lignin and cellulose residues), concentrate of nonferrous metals (copper, chromium, etc.) and clean water; 4. ability to scale and replicate typical technologies of designated purpose. Obtained engineering and technological parameters of universal biotechnologies indicate the prospects of their large-scale industrial implementation.
Keywords: thermodynamic prediction, biotechnologies,
environmentally hazardous compounds, synthetic
organic compounds, metal-containing waste water,
Suspended cultures and biofilm of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans JCM 3863 cultivated in two media – with 15 and 18 g/l initial concentration of iron ions. Biofilm and suspended cultures have been cultivated in five consecutive cycles in each nutrient medium in presence of 5 g/l copper ions to complete oxidation of ferrous to ferric ions. In the end the biofilm thickness has been determined.
Mean rates of oxidation were compared for each cycle of cultivation. In consecutive cultivation of suspended cells and biofilm in medium 15K after addition of copper ions the mean rates decrease in first three cycles, after that they increase in cycles 4 and 5. In consecutive cultivation of suspended cells in medium 18K the mean rates are different for all cycles. In biofilm in medium 18K after addition of copper ions there is decrease of mean rates compared to the first cycle, but they stay constant in the next cycles. Comparison of mean rates of ferrous ions oxidation shows that in biofilm they are higher than in suspended cultures.
From results of presented research we can make the conclusion that the biofilm is better than suspended cells for industrial biotechnological processes in presence of copper ions and high concentrations of ferrous ions.Keywords: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, biofilm, copper ions, high concentration of ferrous ion
Abstract: Salinization of plain soils in Azerbaijan Republic has a special place within the ecoethic problems. Saline soils spread widely in Azerbaijan. Approximately about 60% of the Kur-Araz lowland soils witch’s total area is 2.2 million hectares, became medium and strongly saline soils. In addition, saline soils are spread in Siyazan-Sumgait, Jeyranchol areas, in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and other areas of Azerbaijan. In general, moderate and intensive saline soils in the territory of our Republic consist of 1.3 million hectare total area. It means that 15% of the territory of the Republic has suffered this Ecoethicproblem. As a result of carried investigations it was defined that, 565481 hectares of the 1444.9 thousand hectares or 47.6% of total irrigated suitable for agriculture soils of the country, became saline in different degrees (152898 ha or 27% of this less saline, 146235 ha or 25.9% average saline, 223838 ha or 39.6% intensive saline, 42510 ha, or 7.5% salty soils), 508.3 thousand hectares (29.0%) of the different saline degrees (385037 ha or 75.8% of the low saline, 102110 ha, or 20.1% average saline, 21123 ha or 4.1% intensive saline)
In the result of assessment of irrigated soils it was defined that 385.1 thousand hectares of sil is insufficient; in addition 103.4 thousand hectares of soil where the level of ground water near the surface, 115.1 thousand hectares of intensive saline soil, 166.6 thousand hectares are shown as the main reason for the combined effect of both factors.
The main issue of sail washing is removal of salts from soil where plant roots spread. Plant roots spread layer implies one meter upper layer of the soil. Because, most of the agricultural crops or their root systems are in whole or partially spread under one meter. This layer is called a report layer. Light and medium mechanical composition soils are easy to clean as their water-leakage ability is great.
The essence of the strip wash technology is the area defined to be washed is divided into parallel 3-5 lines depending on among-drain distance. The width of the central section 100 m, but the edges of the strips are separated into 50 meters. Washing the first begins with burial of the central zone with water, in the second stage middle strips, and in the third stage continues the burial of the edge strips. The area is prepared for washing generally in intermittent wash. Beds buried with water should be waited for absorption of the water up to depth 1.5-2.0 m. After that, the area is to be watered again. By this way washing continues up to reaching required report norm.
Key words: ecoethic problems,salt quantity, producing, ground water granulometric composition
Evlogi Markov, Nikolas Kathijotes, ElenaZlatareva, Svetla Marinova
Abstract. Natural resources are elements of the environment that humans use as a means of production in order to achieve economic development. The aim of the study is based on the evaluation of the proposed 5 natural products /vermiculites, glauconite, straw fly ash, wood biomass and pig manure/ in different proportions to develop various versions of compositions for use in agricultural practice. On the basis of the chemical and agrochemical characteristics of the starting materials, 5 compost samples were prepared from mixing the natural products in a different ratio. Thise analyzes of the five starting products found, that in vermiculites, glauconite and ash from straw the total amounts of the biogenic element nitrogen and the sum of the mineral fractions of nitrogen (ammonia and nitrate) were very small, whereas for wood biomass and pigs manure the content the total N is high. The content of the tested heavy metals is much lower, than the ones defined in the legislation. An exception is made for vermiculite, where the total amounts of chromium and nickel are above the MRLs.
The investigators found, that the pH in all the mixtures was in the alkaline region, due to the alkaline reaction of the medium with all the starting components. The sum of the mineral fractions of nitrogen for the five mixtures ranges from 163.0 to 241.3 mg / kg. Moving forms of phosphorus and potassium show high values as a result of mixing. No increase in heavy metal values is observed in the different mixtures and the reported values are below the MRLs. The five composts represent a qualitative improver in their use in agricultural practice.
Key words: vermiculite, glauconite, straw fly ash, wood biomass and pig manure
Vladimir Ilinkin, Dimitar Dimitrov, Peter Zhelev
Abstract: The paper presents results of an investigation on Fluvisols located in “Kriva Bara” Sofia, Bulgaria. Soil samples were taken from sixteen soil profiles. The soil physical and chemical properties were studied. The changes in physical and chemical properties at varying soil depths were studied and the relationships among different soil characteristics were tested by correlation analysis. The results revealed that some soil characteristics, such as soil texture, porosity and TKN, changed strongly with soil depth, either negatively or positively, while such relationships were moderately expressed or statistically insignificant in the case of other soil characteristics, such as soil reaction (pH), CaCO3, silt content. There were significant correlations between the physical and chemical soil properties in 49 out of 78 cases.
Key words: Fluvisols, physical properties, chemical properties, gravel and sand deposit, quarry
Abstract: The development of sustainable agriculture in the European Union is one of the most important strategic objectives of the actual and future Common Agriculture Policy. One way to environmentally use water as a non-renewable natural resource in agriculture is to use information and computer systems to determine the necessary irrigation time and quantity norms to obtain optimal actually possible yields of agricultural crops. At the Institute of Soil Science "N. Pushkarov" an Automated system for prognosis and management of irrigation regime was developed. It is based on the two basic natural factors influencing the agriculture, namely the solar radiation and the soil-physical properties of the soil types. The basic models of dependencies that make up the algorithms of the system are presented. The relationship between energy water potential and yield is considered.
Key words: solar radiation, soil-physical properties, scheduling irrigation