EEEP 1/ 2017

CONTENTS

 

Editor's comment

H. Najdenski                   3-4

I. ECOMONITORING

Implementation of ballast water management convention – a step in saving the Black Sea ecosystem

B. Belev                      5-14

Information modeling of waste disposal sites

A. Richter, M. Kazaryan, M. Shakhramanyan, D. Borisova, N. Stankova, I. Ivanova                 15-21

Evaluation of chemical process parameters in waste disposal sites by satellite images

M. Shakhramanyan, A. Richter, M. Kazaryan, R. Nedkov, D. Borisova, N. Stankova,  I. Ivanova, M. Zaharinova                    22-28

II. MAN AND BIOSPHERE

Fire severity assessment using NDVI derived from Landsat TM/ETM images and terrain data

I. Molla, E. Velizarova, M. Zaharinova              29-37

Application of aerospace data for forest fire risk assessment and prognoses. A case study for Vitosha Mountain

E. Velizarova, R. Nedkov, I. Molla,  M. Zaharinova                  38-45

III. FOREST BIOLOGY

The Bulgarian mountain forest resources

A. H. Alexandrov             46-49

IV. MICROORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT

Pathogenic bacteria in waters and drinking water-associated biofilms

Z. Tsvetanova, H. Najdenski                 50-61

Toxic metals extraction during potato fermentation

I.B. Sioma, À.B. Tashyrev, V.M.,Govorukha, Y.P. Prekrasna                     62-67

Study of resistance to antibiotics of microorganisms isolated from Antarctic cliffs and Black Sea bottom sediments

N.A. Matvieieva, L.N. Churkina, A.M. Shakhovsky, S.V. Kadurin, A.B. Tashyrev                     68-72

Physiological and biochemical changes in algal cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis salina (mesophilic and Antarctic isolates) occuring after treatment with UV-B radiation

D. Doneva, Ju Ivanova , L. Kabaivanova                    73-82

70 years the Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences                 83-84



 

 

























IMPLEMENTATION OF BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT CONVENTION – A STEP IN SAVING THE BLACK SEA ECO SYSTEM

Blagovest Belev

Abstract: Marine ecosystems are under increasing anthropogenic pressures from marine and terrestrial activities. Shipping forms a network that spans the globe and introduces many economically and environmentally harmful invasive species, including human diseases such as cholera. Ship traffic, the major cause of change in the open ocean, and its temporal evolution are still largely unknown.

Since the 1960s the Black Sea has undergone dramatic environmental changes. These changes are considered as result from a complex interaction of different pressures, the most important being eutrophication, overfishing and introduction of alien species.

Some nations, and the International Maritime Organization, are moving towards requirements for managing ballast water to reduce the number of alien species transported and released.

Key Words: Ballast Water Management, Alien Marine Species, Black Sea Eco System

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INFORMATION MODELING OF WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

Andrey Richter, Maretta Kazaryan, Mihail Shakhramanyan , Denitsa Borisova, Nataliya Stankova, Iva Ivanova

Abstract. The paper proposes a methodology for developing information model or database of waste disposal sites /WDS/ or landfill sites, applying received remotely and in-situ data from Earth surface monitoring, especially including procedures of morphological processing, data normalization and visualization models. The overall structure and composition of the information model, described subsystems, classes, objects, and attributes (properties) of the data, are presented. The possibility of formation of new information relations, that arise between different kinds of information, through morphological (in particular, the morphemic) processing “raw” information at the input, for example, between the classifiers (waste products, settlements, economic activities, etc.), is described. The paper used methods of system analysis, methods of mathematical linguistics, space monitoring methods. For example a structure of constructing the database, the archive and the classifier of unauthorized waste disposal facilities (solid waste landfills, waste piles, municipal landfills, and others) is presented. The scheme of data model describes the components (tables) as part of the model: general information, geometric and geographic parameters of geo-referenced data, including data for adjacent territorial-administrative facilities, etc.

Kewwords: waste disposal sites, landfills, information model, database, classifier, waste disposal object classification, state register, object attribute data

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EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESS PARAMETERS IN WASTE DISPOSAL SITES BY SATELLITE IMAGES

Mihail Shakhramanyan, Andrey Richter, Maretta Kazaryan, Roumen Nedkov, Denitsa Borisova, Nataliya Stankova, Iva Ivanova, Mariana Zaharinova

Abstract. The presented paper proposes a method for estimating parameters and characteristics of the chemical processes in large municipal landfills and solid waste disposal sites according to the waste monitoring from space. The model of chemical transformations in the waste disposal sites is described based on the idea of waste biochemical degradation in the form of the “transformations tree”. The presentation of chemical transformations in the form of statistical integrated chemical equations allows us to describe the chemical system "a waste disposal facility" in the analytical form. The paper presents the main types of physical (volume and mass, thermal) and chemical (filtrate) characteristics which assessment could be made by data from satellite images. As an example the obtaining of the volume and mass characteristics of landfills in their 3D-models is described. Results of the algorithm on the example of a polygon of solid municipal and industrial waste in Salaryevo (Leninsky district of the Moscow region) are presented. As an example the assessment of volume and mass of landfill gas and its main component – methane is shown. An airborne image from year 2000 is compared with the satellite images in visible spectral range closed to its date. The main sources of errors in the evaluation of volume and mass characteristics are defined. The error which source is the spatial and spectral resolution of the satellite image is calculated.

Keywords: waste disposal facility, landfills, satellite images, chemical processes, chemical parameters, 3D-model

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FIRE SEVERITY ASSESSMENT USING NDVI DERIVED FROM LANDSAT TM/ETM IMAGES AND TERRAIN DATA

Ibrahim Molla, Emiliya Velizarova, Mariana Zaharinova

Abstract: The forest fires influence on the plants and soil depends on the fire severity and time of exposure. Fire severity integrates physical, chemical and biological changes occurring in ecosystems on the area as a consequence of fire influence. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of the forest fire severity on the vegetation cover of the area of Svilengrad Municipality, using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) before fire and after fire, derived from LANDSAT 8 TM/ETM images. The comparison of the data from NDVI and that observed on the terrain data was also targeted. The results show that NDVI are changed significantly in fire affected area depending on vegetation cover and type of fire. This index also is very sensitive to changes during time after fire occurrence. One year after fire occurrence the NDVI values increased to +0.305 (0.048) for whole studied area. Through dNDVI could be distinguish the recovery rates of the fire affected areas with different tree species.

Key words: fire severity, Sakar mountain, NDVI, tree species

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APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE DATA FOR FOREST FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT AND PROGNOSES. A CASE STUDY FOR VITOSHA MOUNTAIN

Emiliya Velizarova, Rumen Nedkov, Ibrahim Molla, Mariana Zaharinova

Abstract: An adequate assessment of the fire risk is of great importance for developing fire-prevention policies. Two important indices, that have been frequently used to estimate the level of fire risk, are the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The main purpose of the present study was to analyse the NDVI index variability during different summer time periods for Vitosha mountain region in order to assess his applicability for accessing the associated risk of fire. A comprehensive spatial and temporal data regarding the distribution of the NDVI index obtained through satellite data (using aerospace technology), GPS and above-ground data, and rationalised using the GIS approach have been applied. The data obtained demonstrate that immediately after a fire, the NDVI for BR “Bistrishko branishte” reached a negative value -0.025(±0.346). The lowest NDVI: +0.17 (±0.339) was found for the image taken on 16.08.2012, about two months before the fire occurrence. Overall, the results show that the NDVI data could be successfully used as an indicator for identifying locations with an elevated summer vegetation dryness and provide important information on vegetation sites with an increased fire susceptibility. Therefore development of a fire risk assessment methodology based on using NDVI data, especially during summer periods, appears to be a promising technique for regions, where the fire events have been frequently observed.

Key words: Forest fire risk, Vitosha mountain, NDVI, “Bistrishko branishte”, “Vitoshko lale”

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THE BULGARIAN MOUNTAIN FOREST RESOURCES

Alexander H. Alexandrov

Abstract: 39 mountains are situated on the territory of Bulgaria, 8 of which have peaks higher than 2000 m a.s.l. Mountain areas refer hypsometrically to territories above 600 m altitude (from 600 m up to 2925 m) with a total area of 30,608 km2 or 27.6% of the country. Within this range are situated the resources of forests, pastures, spring waters, game, mountain agriculture and livestock-breeding, as well as tourism and sport facilities. Some small towns, villages and hamlets in the mountains are however depopulated due to migration processes.

Mountain forest resources are spread all over the following vegetation belts: 1. Carpinus betulus L.-Quercus petraea Liebl. belt, 2. Fagus sylvatica L. belt, 3. Coniferous forests belt, 4. Sub-alpine thin forests, Pinus mugo Turra and Juniperus sp. formations belt. The forests by-products include the returns of hay, foliage, forest fruits, different kind of nuts, lime-blossoms, medical herbs and mushrooms. The national parks, the bigger part of nature parks and reserves are distributed mainly in the mountains, where they preserve the biodiversity and the genetic resources of plants and animals. Mountain agriculture and livestock-breeding are directed to traditional bio-products and food security. Many monasteries, churches and mosques, as part of the cultural-historical heritage, are situated in mountain regions.

Key words: mountain forests and agriculture, water resources, mountain settlements.

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PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN WATERS AND DRINKING WATER-ASSOCIATED BIOFILMS

Zvezdimira Tsvetanova, Hristo Najdenski

Abstract In this review, the dissemination of bacterial pathogens in natural waters and the mechanisms of their transmission in drinking water, and the role of water-associated biofilms for their survival or growth are discussed. The current state of the studies on biofilm-formation potential of the emerged pathogens in drinking water and the role of interspecies interactions for attachment and survival of pathogenic bacteria in the biofilm community is summarized. The contribution of the biofilms for increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogens is discussed.

Key words: bacterial resistance, biofilm, quorum sensing, pathogenic bacteria, drinking water

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TOXIC METALS EXTRACTION DURING POTATO FERMENTATION

Sioma I.B., Tashyrev O.B., Govorukha V.M., Prekrasna Y.P.

Abstract: According to the thermodynamical prognosis developed by us the investigation of the interaction of Bacillus-Clostridium community and six representative metals was performed.  To representative metals we refer: oxidisers (CrO42-), substitutes (Ni2+, Co2+) and combined action metals that combine the characteristics of both oxidizers and substitutes (Cu2+, Hg2+, Fe3+).

The natural soil hydrogen-producing microbial communities appeared to be resistant to the metals in their high total concentration of 120 mg/l and also able to extract these metals from the solution (up to 96%).
The obtained
regularities are the base for the development of new combined biotechnologies, allowing to neutralize ecologically hazardous food wastes, treat metal contaminated sewages and simultaneously obtain environmentally friendly energy source – hydrogen.

Key words: metal resistant communities, sewage treatment, toxic waste destruction.

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STUDY OF RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM ANTARCTIC CLIFFS AND BLACK SEA BOTTOM SEDIMENTS

N.A. Matvieieva, L.N. Churkina, A.M. Shakhovsky, S.V. Kadurin, A.B. Tashyrev

Abstract. Resistance to antibiotics of bacteria isolated from extreme ecosystems was compared. Pseudomonas àntarctica and Rothia sp. strains isolated from rocky lichen of Antarctic Galindez Island were highly resistant to the antibiotics. Rhodococcus fascians 181n3, Sporosarcina aquamarina 188n2 and Staphylococcus epidermidis 190n1 strains were found to be sensitive to all antibiotics studied.  Plasmid localization of genes coding resistance to Cr (VI) and Co2+ was determined. Correlation of resistance of microorganisms isolated from «ecologically pure» ecosystem to antibiotics demonstrated in this study and resistance of these microorganisms to the toxic metals exhibited by us earlier is fundamentally new data which testify the phenomenon of simultaneous  resistance of microbial community to different extremal factors.

Keywords: microorganisms, Antarctic cliffs, antibiotic resistance, toxic metal resistance

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PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN ALGAL CULTURES OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS AND  SYNECHOCYSTIS SALINA (MESOPHILIC AND ANTARCTIC ISOLATES) OCCURING AFTER TREATMENT WITH UV-B RADIATION

Dilyana Doneva, Juliana Ivanova , Lyudmila Kabaivanova

ABSTRACT. Determination of biomass production and viability of algal cells of Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis salina exposed to UV-B radiation were carried out in this study together with comparison of the mesophilic and antarctic isolates of both investigated strains. Estimation of the content of the pigments: chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, β-carotene, C-phycocyanin and allo-phycocyanin in algal cells exposed to UV-B radiation was also accomplished. The obtained results showed that the antarctic algae are more resistant to oxidative stress than their mesophilic counterparts. The antarctic isolates of Ch. vulgaris and S. salina compared with the mesophilic ones - up to 72 h showed tolerance to low exposures of radiation, expressed in a slight stimulation of growth and viability of the cells. Antarctic isolates also showed greater resistance to low doses of UV-B radiation manifested by stimulation of the synthesis of chlorophyll a and β-carotene. The registered increase in the amount of C- and allo-phycocyanin in antarctic isolates of S. salina showed that they had developed protective strategies against UV-B radiation by increasing the concentration of the phycobiliproteins. As a result of increased UV-B background, in antarctic isolates, stronger antioxidant defence mechanisms are triggered, which proved the possibility of using them as markers of oxidative stress.

Key words: algae, antarctic isolates, UV-radiation, biochemical changes

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