SPATIAL MODEL OF THE LAND USE DYNAMICS IN THE MARITSA IZTOK MINES WITH REMOTE SENSING METHODS
Georgi Jelev, Margarita Chervenyashka, Petar Dimitrov
Abstract: The problems related with the rate and direction of landuse changes are very important for the planning in the territories of surface coal mining. In this paper an analysis is presented of the landuse in the area of “Mednikarovo” heap (Maritsa Iztok coal basin, Bulgaria) for a 30-year period (1978-2007). For this aim visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite imagery from four different years was conducted and landuse maps were prepared based on the CORINE Land Cover classification. As an auxiliary source of information for tracing changes between the examined years topographic maps were used. All spatial analyses are performed in Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Before the start of the heap construction the lands with agricultural usage had dominated in the area of Mednikarovo village with crops and pastures occupying 60% of the area. The heap construction and enlargement leads to strong reduction of the area of some types of landuse, for example forests, vineyards, shrublands and other natural vegetation. These are mainly landuse types that, as a rule, have small acreage in the region. The main landuse types – croplands and pastures – remain dominant after the heap appearance, even though with reduced area. This is partly due to the fact that the recultivated terrains of the heap turn again into these landuse types. This ultimately leads to consolidation and unification of the landuse. Recultivation can rearrange the relative importance of the different landuse types based on the chose of the most appropriate one in the new conditions – building up, afforestation, crop production etc. The recultivation practices in the study area are currently changing the land use structure in favour of pastures for the account of arable land.
Keyword: land use dynamics, remote sensing methods, Maritsa Iztok mines
Biana Simeonova, Lubomir Simeonov
Abstract: The present paper presents a small and portable laser mass-spectrometer, whose analytical capabilities are believed to fulfill the requirements for in-field chemical analysis of environmental pollution with heavy metals and other pollutants and will not sacrifice the quality objectives of the analysis because of compromised reasons. In such cases the chemical analysis and interpretation of the results, which is needed, and the usual procedures, which assure the quality control of measurement and data collection, are time limited and simplified.
Keywords: heavy metals, environmental pollution, in-field analysis, laser mass spectrometry
NANOMATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY – CONSENSUS REGARDING HAZARD–BENEFIT AFFECTING HUMAN HEALTH
Vasilka Pencheva, Stoyan Penchev
Abstract. The appearance of XXI century will be shaped by the achievements and development of nanotechnologies in various areas of life. Nanomaterials reveal the potential of unique physical, chemical and biological properties. Their application raises the problem of health and safety of people engaged in production of nanotechnology, as well, of environmental safety. It is necessary to reach a balance between unconditional insurance of safety of nanotechnologies for mankind and future generations and the progress in production and implementation of new nano-products of useful properties.
The present work includes an analysis of the hazard-benefit in studies of the influence of nano-silver and nano-gold encountered in many consumer products and methods of treatment of diseases. Its aim is the greater involvement of the scientific society in Bulgaria in supplementation and up to date correction of standards.
Keywords: safety and hazard of nanomaterials, eco-standards
ASSESSMENT OF THE PURIFICATION POTENTIAL OF THE ISKAR RIVER IN REGION OF THE “MIDDLE ISKAR” CASCADE DURING THE HIGH FLOW SEASONS OF THE YEAR 2010/2011
S. Lincheva, Y. Todorova, L. Kenderov, Y. Topalova
Abstract: The project “Middle Iskar” Cascade has been aimed to create 9-mini hydroelectric power plants run-of Iskar River in section Prokopanik – Gabrovnitsa. This river sector is anthropogenically strong effected with various pollutants (organic and xenobiotic). These studies have been aimed to evaluate the changes occurring in microbial communities (aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms, Endo bacteria) and hydrochemical indicators (nitrites, nitrates and ammonium, dissolved, suspended solids and total dry weight, phosphates, COD) of surface water during high flow seasons. The obtained results going to be used for assess how building of mini hydroelectric power plants affect the rate of self-purification processes and water quality. Dynamic monitoring studies have been checking for the harmonious incorporation of innovative business facilities in the environment. The obtained results showed presence of a stable and adaptive self-purification capacity of the river section.
Keywords: high flow seasons, Iskar River, mini hydroelectric power plants, microbial communities
FLY ASH UTILIZATION AS A STARTING MATERIAL FOR PREPARATION OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES
Sylvia Boycheva, Denitza Zgureva
Abstract: The present paper contains a brief overewiev of the possible application of the fly ash generated by the coal incineration in Thermal Power Plants. Description of fly ash formation mechanisms, its composition, nature and properties was done. The mechnism of alkali-hydrothermal convertion of fly ash into zeolites was described and the basic zeolite forms were summarized. An attempt for preparation of synthetic zeolites using fly ash from Bulgarian lignite coals was performent by hydrothermal synthesis in concentrated sodium base solution (40 mol/l) at a fly ash/NaOH solution ratio 4:1. The obtained mixture was homogenized and kept at 120 C for 2 h. The obtained synthetic material was characterized with respect to its crystallography. Mixed zeolitic structure consiting of three natrium zeolite forms was observed, namely analcime, hydroxyl-sodalite and faujasite. The quantity analisys revealed comperatively low conversion extent at the selected synthesis conditions - about 50 % of the amorphous constituents of the fly ash.
Keywords: Fly ash, Synthetic zeolites, Ion-exchangers, Water decontamination
INVESTIGATION ON ANALYTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A BIOSENSOR SYSTEM FOR DETERMINATION OF PHENOL
Abstract: In the present work a biosensor based on mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissue for determination of phenol is described. The biological material containing enzyme tyrosinase is homogenized and combined with Clark-type oxygen electrode. Optimization of output signal depending of buffer solution with different pH is done. Storage stability and service life are also investigated. The biosensor shows good response, detection limit, sensitivity and response time. A linear response of output signal was observed in interval from 2,6 μM to 238,7 μM phenol. The biosensor was tested for selectivity with catechol and L-tyrosine and on this base is calculated selectivity coefficient. Inhibition studies over enzyme reaction between tyrosinase and phenol is investigated with proposed tissue biosensor.
Key Words: biosensor, mushroom tissue, Agaricus bisporus, tyrosinase, phenol
Nikolay Nikolov, Asen Pisarski, Atanas Kovachev
Summary. In standards, according to the technology of manufacturing processes, factories are categorized into seven groups, without considering the noise as pollutant production environment. To address this omission was made acoustic calculations, which includes: determining the level of noise in the calculation point, which is a given distance from the source (right task) and defining the required distance from the source to achieve the rated value of the noise premises ("feedback" problem). Have made findings and recommendations.
Keywords: Factories, industrial areas, noise level, noise protection
CONTINUOUS MONITORING AND PERIODIC CAPTURE FOR ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT AND NOISE POLLUTION IN URBAN AREAS
Milcho Georgiev, Boris Mihaylov
Abstract. This document provides an approach and system for continuous monitoring and periodic recording of the amendment of the acoustic environment and noise pollution in urban areas. The aim of development is a system for continuous monitoring of noise pollution in the environment for assess of noise and take action to regulate the situation. Existing regulations (Regulation 6 of the Ministry of Health and Ministry of environment) are set a limits noise levels for day, evening and night for different areas and development zones in urban areas and beyond: residential zones, public areas and individual recreation, etc. Continuous monitoring system is realized by 3 to 6 and more monitoring terminals environmental noise with a microphone for outdoor use of the Bruel & Kear and software for organizing database and generates periodical reports on time. Registering indicators Noise: equivalent level, maximum and minimum level at scale "A" - LAeq, LAeqmax, LAeqmin, LAmax, LAmin, and for each defined noise event, the system stores in the data base the spectral data, sound records, and half seconds measurements of the main noise indexes. The system automatically performs self-calibration and generates a calibration report. The result is an objective assessment and noise management. The Realized projects.
Key words: noise, noise behavior, noise measurements, noise monitoring.
Boris Mihaylov, Tatiana Ivanova, Milcho Georgiev
Abstract. The purpose of strategic noise mapping is defining the level of noise pollution in the environment – using methods of measurement, calculation, assessment and noise levels mapping. The usage of the respective action plans, based on the strategic noise map is management, restriction and diminishing of the noise exposure in the environment via applying set of measures and acoustical planning – in short, middle and long terms. These measures shall be based for the specific cases where an over limit noise exposure is prevailing – when human health is under risk, and as well maintaining the noise levels for areas where they are within the limits. The fail aim is providing healthy life conditions and enviromental noise protection – via implementing of an integrated approach. The expert realisation is provided by Êðàéíàòà öåë å ñúçäàâàíå íà çäðàâîñëîâíè óñëîâèÿ íà æèâîò íà íàñåëåíèåòî è îïàçâàíå íà îêîëíàòà the Bulgarian leading company in the domain of acoustics and vibration engineering – Spectri Ltd. Highlights from realized projects.
Key words: strategic noise map, action plan, environmental noise.
Abstract: The aim of this analysis is to demonstrate the requirement of application as a basic indicator maximum aviation noise level LAmax in preparation of strategic noise maps. Applications of indicators Lden and Lnight leads to unrealistic optimistic picture.
Key words: strategic noise maps, aviation noise