EEEP  1/2003

CONTENTS


E
cological engineering and environment protection - a new beginning

I. Simeonov                                        3

I. Numan and Biosphere

Rehabilitation annual standard of air pollution with sulfur dioxide

D. Nedialkov, Iv. Videnova                       4

Wind alternative energy source for Bulgaria

A. N. Sadovski, L. A. Sadovski              9

The plants in the space ecological life-support systems

Tania N. Ivanova                                 15

II. Technologies for depolution

Monitoring the biogas process

I. Angelidaki, P. Pind                               21

Purification of microbially contaminated waters with immobilized photosensitizers

M. Krysteva, S. Artarsky                       32

Biosorption of copper ions by polyacrilonitrile immobilized yeast

S. Mihova, T. Godjevargova                  36

III. Bioinformatics and bioautomatics

Biosensor diagnostic method with two dialyse membranes and limitation diffusion conditions

A. Neykov, P. Katsarova, V. Rangelova                                               41

Modelling of the methane fermentation of organic wastes with artificial neural networks

I. Simeonov, E. Chorukova                      47

IV. Lesobiology and lesotechnics

Gene conservation of Bulgarian noble hardwoods

A. Alexandrov, D. Pandeva                  59

V. New books                                  63

VI. National and international scientific forums                             64

VII. Ecological institutions and organizations                                   65

In Memoriam

Assoc.Prof. Ezra Kohen, DSc.              66

(11. 02. 1929 31. 10. 2002)

VIII. Anniversary

Prof. Y. Ivanov (70 years)                    69

Prof. Al. Neykov (60 years)                   70

IX. Information from abroad             71

 

Rehabilitation annual standard of air pol-lution with sulfur dioxide

D. Nedialkov, Iv. Videnova                      

Abstract. In this study  the necessity of SO2 annual standard  is grounded. Correlation dependencies between daily standard and annual concentrations of SO2 are investigated. It was found that annual standard of  50 mg/m3 is stronger than recent daily standard. It is suggested an Annual Air Quality Index, determined by using three standards annual, daily and hourly.

 

Wind alternative energy source for Bulgaria

A.  Sadovski, L. Sadovski            

Abstract. The purpose of present study is more precise determination of Bulgarian regions' capabilities to use wind energy. With the help of Cluster analysis are selected groups of locations, which are of interest for development of wind energetic. Spatial analysis with GIS helps to produce maps with geographic distribution of territories in relation to indices: mean annual wind speed (m/sec), annual number of days with strong wind (V³14 m/sec) and annual frequency of wind by speed in gradation (%), and their categorization.

 

The plants in the space ecological life-support systems

T. Ivanova           

Abstract. The creation of closed controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS), based on biological recycling of chemical elements, is an important scientific task, related to future manned space missions. The SVET Space Greenhouse, created by the Bulgarian scientists, is the first automatically operating and controlling environment equipment for higher plant growth a basic link of CELSS. A lot of long-duration plant space experiments were carried out in it onboard the MIR Orbital Station in the period 1990-2000. Significant results in the field of Fundamental Gravitational Biology proving that plant could be successfully used in the future CELSS were received.

Monitoring the biogas process

I. Angelidaki, P. Pind                              

Abstract. Anaerobic treatment of organic wastes for biogas production is a way to substitute fossil fuels and to reduce disposal of waste in landfills. Economic evaluation of biogas plants has reveal that these plants can only survive economically if special incentives are applied. It is therefore necessary to find ways to optimize the biogas production in order to make biogas plants economically viable without or with fewer subsidies. Optimization of the biogas process can undoubtedly lead to better economy. This optimization can be achieved by better monitoring and control of the biogas process.

Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development, which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor.

 

Purification of microbial contaminated waters with immobilized photosensitizers

M. Krysteva, S. Artarsky                      

Abstract: Membranes of chitosan and triacetyl cellulose were modified with Zn (II) phtalocyanine and rose bengale respectively. Modified membranes were used in a specially constructed device for water sterilization. Bactericide effect of immobilized photosensitizers was studied toward Esherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Strong bactericide effect of both photosensitizers was registered.

Biosorption of copper ions by polyacrilonitrile immobilized yeast

S. Mihova, T. Godjevargova                 

Abstract: Biosorption of Cu2+ by entrapped dead cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 54 in porous polyacrilonitrile beads was studied in static conditions. The adsorption characteristics of the obtained biosorbent beads were studied by various pH and temperatures, as well as by different initial concentration of Cu2+. The dead cells of S. cerevisiae were found to show better sorption ability at pH 3.5 by 30oC. Also the embedded yeast biomass shows excellent adsorption characteristics they are able to uptake 45,6 mg Cu2+/g biomass (dry weight) at 200 mg.l-1 initial concentration of metal ions. The process of uptake of Cu2+ obeys the Freundlich isotherm.

Biosensor diagnostic method with two dialyse membranes and limitation diffusion conditions

A. Neykov, P. Katsarova, V. Rangelova

Abstract. Determination of internal parameters is very important for biosensor development. Indirect methods are usually use for measurement of parameters. In this paper we suggest a diagnostic biosensor method and algorithm with two dialyze membranes and limitation diffusion conditions. The mathematical requirements for diagnostics are present and some experiments with enzyme and tissue biosensors are made. The values ot internal diffusion parameters are calculate after that.       

Modelling of the methane fermentation of organic wastes with artificial neural networks

I. Simeonov, E. Chorukova                 

Abstract. Neural models (with one input - one output, two inputs one output and two inputs two outputs) of the methane fermentation of organic wastes stimulated with addition of glucose are developed on the basis of experimental data and generated data from known deterministic model of the process. They may be useful for process control.

 

Gene conservation of bulgarian noble hardwoods

A. Alexandrov, D. Pandeva

Abstract. Noble Hardwood species occupy 176 932 ha or about 8% of the deciduous forests area in Bulgaria. Part of them is valuable not only for the preservation of biodiversity but are also important from economic point of view. Maps of the natural distribution ranges of some species from the following genera: Acer, Fraxinus, Tilia and Castanea, are composed. The studied gene conservation units in-situ are: seed stands, forest reserves, national and nature parks, while from ex-situ ones: plantations and forest seed banks. The big number of Noble Hardwoods in this country and their genetic resources present a valuable source of reproductive materials for afforestation programs.