EEEP  1/2001

CONTENTS

 

Ecological engineering and environment protection

I. Simeonov                                            3

I. Biosphere pollution

Environmental analytical chemistry. tasks, formulation of the problem and methodology

E. Kohen     5

Microbial detoxification of heavy metals in natural environment

D. Denchev, K. Tsekova   15

Air pollution and protection of health

I. Videnova and D. Nedialkov     19

Evaluation of aspects of aviation noise pollution due to Sofia airport activities

T. Petkov     24

II.Technologies for depolution

Technologies for fluid treatments. Part i. General scheme and peculiarities of some of the technological stages.

L. Nikolov     30

The concept of soil immobilization: A new tool for bioprocess development for the degradation of environmental pollutants

D. Karamanev        37

The cellulase enzymes and their potential for removing of cellulose waste from the environment

D. Kolev       42

III.Bioinformatics and bioautomatics

Some ecological aspects of the living biosensor systems

A. Nejkov     46

Modelling and managment in ecology and environment protection. Part i. deterministic approach

I. Simeonov  52

To the issue of the automation of operative control of the system "aeration tank sedimentation tank" in wastewater treatment

R. Tzvetanov and M. Tzvetanov  62

Instrumentation, control and diagnosis of biological wastewater treatment systems

J. P. Steyer, J. Harmand, J. C. Bouvier, T. Conte, J. P. Delgenes  66

IV.Lesobiology and lesotechnics

Conservation in situ of forest tree genetic resources in Bulgaria

A. Aleksandrov      72

V.Juridical problems of the environment preservation

Development of legislation in the field of assessment of impacts on environment

M. Vojcheva 76

VI.Presentation of international institutions and organisations

European Ecological Federation                          79

VII. Anniversary                                                          81

a) Prof.Atanas Mehandjiev (70 years)

b) Assoc. Prof.Nikolaj Nikolov (70 years)

 

 

Environmental analytical chemistry. tasks, formulation of the problem and methodology    

E. Kohen

Abstract. The first and more important step with the aim to avoid the pollution of the human environment is the control for the content of traces of toxic substances in the air, waters, soils and foods. This work deals with the basic principles and concepts of the Environmental Analytical Chemistry and its methodology. A special attention is due to the air sampling as a most important part of the investigations for air-pollution, so that to achieve an effective catches of the pollutants. The analytical parameters of modern analytical methods (ASV, DPP, AAS) for quantitative determination of toxic components in the air at micro- and nanogram level are discussed comparatively.

Microbial detoxification of heavy metals in natural environment                   

D. Denchev, K. Tsekova

Abstract. The subject of this paper is microbial detoxification of heavy metals in natural environment. It was shown microorganisms physiological reaction in presence of metal ions high concentrations. Own experimental data are presented about quantity of polymers and metabolites into the yeast and mould cells - such as RNA, DNA, lipids, stored carbohydrates, citric acid as well as activity of tricarbon cycle enzymes. Mechanisms of stability in presence of heavy metals and use of immobilised cells like biosorbents are shown.

Air pollution and protection of health      

I. Videnova and D. Nedialkov

Abstracts. In this revue main sources of air pollution, respective basic, injurious to health substances, and their influence on the health of people are considered.

Evaluation of aspects of aviation noise pollution due to Sofia airport activities     

T. Petkov

Abstract. The number of inhabitants, which fall under the influence of the noise above the Leq =60 dB(A) level due to the activities of Sofia Airport was evaluated and compared to the results obtained for 1996 year. The aviation noise forecast for 2007/8 and 2018 years (the project for the building of the new runway system of Sofia Airport was used) assumed ten fold decrease of the number of inhabitants put in the noise  contours Leq =60 dB(A). The comparison of the data for the area which fall under the influence of overground noise in Sofia town had demonstrated that this area was bigger than the contour area Leq =60 dB(A) level of aviation noise due Sofia Airport activities.

Technologies for fluid treatments. Part i. General scheme and peculiarities of some of the technological stages.                                

L. Nikolov

Abstract. On the basis of the physical properties similarity of waste waters and tail gases and using the common ideas in their treatment, an attempt to generalize the main technological operations is made. A general scheme of a technological line consisted of 6 main stages is proposed. The important role of preparation of the raw fluids as the first technological stage is underlined. Special attention is paid to the potentialities of contamination sources to help the fluid treatment processes. The preparation of the active agents is discussed too. The subject of the next part of this study is outlined.

The cellulase enzymes and their potential for removing of cellulose waste from the environment

D.N. Kolev                                                  

Abstract: The cellulose is the most widely distributed organic substance in the environment, which is being constantly regenerated in nature. Its hydrolysis is of paramount importance for the reduction of the increasing environmental pollution generated by industrial, agricultural and domestic cellulose waste. Enzyme hydrolysis shows considerable advantages over the existing methods for cellulose hydrolysis. It is catalyzed by at least three synergistically acting enzymes (cellulase , cellulose 1,4- b- cellobiosidase and - b- -glucosidase) , forming the cellulase enzyme system (CES) or complex. This system has been used successfully in biotechnology for the bioconversion of cellulose substrates to D-glucose, which is a source for the production of ethanol, single cell proteins, glucose-fructose syrup and other chemicals. The results obtained show the great potential of cellulase enzymes for removing of cellulose waste from the environment.

Some ecological aspects of the living biosensor systems                                                   46

A. Nejkov

Abstract. Some problems of the living biosensor systems are discussed.  A general scheme for transformation of received ecological information is given. The special properties of main body receptors are considered.  Some ecological problems, connected with sensor systems of sight, ear and sense of smell are pesented.

Modelling and managment in ecology and environment protection. Part i. deterministic approach

I. Simeonov

Abstract. In the paper some problems and scientific results in the fields of mathematical modelling and management in ecology and environment protection are presented. Deterministic dynamical models described by sets of ordinary or partial differential equations are involved. They cover four important areas: population dynamics, environmental biotechnology, freshwater ecosystems and long-range transport of air pollutants. Several problems connected with the computer treatment of air pollution models are discussed.

To the issue of the automation of operative control of the system "aeration tank sedimentation tank" in wastewater treatment

R. Tzvetanov, M. Tzvetanov

Abstract: The article gives a brief description of the developed new strategy for automated operative control of the system "aeration tank sedimentation tank, which is based on theoretical mathematical models, and accounts for the practical opportunities for automated control and regulation of the factors and parameters set in such models. The strategy includes 6 single-loop systems for automated regulation, 3 of which govern the linear distributed parameter "Dissolved Oxygen" in the aeration tank, and one each for the regulation of the parameters "Specific oxygen demand in the aeration tank", "Activated sludge age within the system of aeration and sedimentation tank" and of the factor "Maximum allowable flow rate of mixed wastewater and rain waters in the aeration tank corridors".

Instrumentation, control and diagnosis of biological wastewater treatment systems

J. P. Steyer, J. Harmand, J. C. Bouvier, T. Conte, J. P. Delgenes

Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the activities of the process engineering and control engineering (or peace) research group within the field of instrumentation, control and diagnosis of biological systems for environmental purposes.

Conservation in situ of forest tree genetic resources in Bulgaria

A. Aleksandrov

Abstract. The conservation of the genetic resources of tree species "in situ" is performed mainly through seed stands, reserves, national and nature parks, but greatest genetic-and-breeding importance have seed stands. The European programme for forest genetic resources, of which Bulgaria is a member, aims at effective preserving and sustainable using of these resources within five networks: 1. Coniferous species, 2. Social broadleaves, 3. Noble hardwoods, 4. Mediterranean oaks, 5. Black poplars.

Development of legislation in the field of assessment of impacts on environment

M. Vojcheva

Abstract: Development of new legislation in the field of Environment protection of Republic of Bulgaria in connection with the change of the state system is discussed. The changes in the legislation are followed and analysed since 1991 when the Low of Protecion of Environment (LPE) has been approved by the Bulgarian Parliament. The main subjects and objects of this Low are outlined. Special attention is paid to the legislative acts issued after the LPE approval.Key words: Legislation, Environment, Impact assessment, Subjects of legislation